Gielen et al.
Hard to determine how IPV is a risk factor for HIV because no studies provide data over time, so can’t make causal inferences
Relationship between timing of IPV and timing of HIV diagnosis is not available
DEFINITIONS of IPV vary!!!
Laughon et al. 2007:lifetime physical abuse increased tenfold the odds of past-year STI
IPV alone increased odds of past-year STI treatment 19x!!! Both IPV and non-IP assault increased odds by 15x (vs. no IPV or non-IP assault)
Almost ½ of their sample were victims of 3+ types of interpersonal violence; 83% had lifetime history of regular use of drugs & alcohol
In Lang et al. study, women who experienced recent GBV and who asked their partners to use a condom were 8x more likely to report being threatened with violence and were 14x more likely to be hit
Littleton et al. 1007: experiencing physical abuse by romantic partner was most consistent predictor of recent sexual risk behaviors—more likely to have had multiple sexual partners in past year and to have sex after drinking or drug use in past 3 months; potential pathways: women with history of abuse may be more likely to be involved in deviant social networksnormalization of risky behaviors; physical partner abuse assoc. with social isolationengage in risky behaviors to cope with feelings of loneliness; sexual abuse early in life has negative effect on sexual development and interpersonal functioningmore likely to engage in risk behaviors and/or become invovled with risky and violent partners