The taking up of nutrients into the intestinal cells
|ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE
The amount of a sweetner that individuals can safely consume
each day over the course of a lifetime without adverse
effect. It includes a 100-fold factor.
Approved; in the case of medical centers or universities,
certified by an agency recognized by the U.S. Department of
A low calorie sweetner approved by the FDA. Also known as
acesulfame-K (K is the symbol for potassium).
An intermediate in alcohol metabolism.
A distinctive fruity smell that is detectable on the breath
of a person who is experiencing ketosis.
A 2-carbon compound (acetate or acetic acid)to which a
molecule of CoA is attached.
The equilibrium in the body between acid and base
Above normal acidity in the blood and body fluids.
|ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS)
The end stage of HIV infection in which severe complications
|ACTIVE VITAMIN D
The 1,25-dihydroxy form of vitamin D that promotes calcium
balance and bone mineralization.
A technique that involves piercing the skin with long thin
needles at specific anatomical points to relieve pain or
illness. Acupuncture sometimes uses heat, pressure,
friction, suction, or electromagnetic energy to stimulate
A disease that develops quickly, produces sharp symptoms,
and runs a short course.
Protein-energy malnutrition caused by a recent severe food
restriction or hypermetabolism; characterized in children by
thinness for height (wasting).
Adjustments in energy expenditure related to changes in
environment such as cold and to physiological events such as
overfeeding, trauma, and changes in hormone status.
Substances not normally consumed as foods but added to food
either intentionally or by accident.
Cancers that arise from glandular tissues.
Providing all the essential nutrients, fiber and energy in
amounts sufficient to maintain health.
The body's fat tissue, which consists of masses of fat
The period from the beginning of puberty until maturity.
Glands that are adjacent to and just above each kidney.
Unusual responses to food including allergies and intollerances.
The diarrhea and malabsorption associated with AIDS for
which no known cause has been identified.
|AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX (ARC)
The cluster of mild symptoms that sometimes occur early in
the course of HIV infection.
Loss of protein in the urine.
A class of organic compounds containing hydroxyl
(oxygen+hydrogen) groups. Ethanol, a type of alcohol is
found in beer, wine and distilled spirits.
An enzyme that converts ethanol (grain alcohol) to acetalhyde.
A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that stimulates the
reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys; aldosterone also
regulates chloride and potassium concentrations.
Also known as postgastrectomy hypoglycemia, is a type of
gycemia that occurs after gastric surgery.
An artificial sweetner that is 2000 times sweeter than
sucrose (table sugar) made from two amino acids (alanine
and aspartic acid). FDA approval pending.
Above normal alkalinity (base) in the blood and body fluids.
The chief protein in human breast milk. In comparison,
casien is the chief protein in cow's milk.
The most biologically active vitamin E compound.
Approaches to medical diagnosis and treatment that are not
fully accepted by the established medical community.
Senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT) is a
degenerative disease of the brain involving memory loss and
major structural changes in the neuron networks.
The abscence of or cessation of menstration. Primary
amenorrhea is menarche delayed beyond 16 years of age.
Secondary amenorrhea is the absence of three to six
consecutive menstrual cycles.
The structural units that make up proteins.
An enzyme that breaks down starches; a component of saliva.
A component of starch, consisting of many glucose units
joined in branching patterns.
A component of starch, consisting of many glucose units
joined in a straight chain without branching.
The synthesis of new materials for cellular growth,
maintenance, or repair of the body.
A deficiency of oxygen-carrying material in the blood.
A disorder in which a person refuses food and loses weight
to the point of emaciation or even death.
A substance that prevents or delays the breakdown of other
substances by oxygen; often added to food to retard
deterioration and rancidity.
An essential polyunsaturated fatty acid.
Condition charterized by a thickening and hardening of the
walls of the arteries and a reultant loss of elasticity.
A type of ateriosclerosis in which lipids, especially
cholesterol, accumulate in the arteries and obstruct blood
A substance found in raw egg white that acts as an
antagonist of biotin, one of the B vitamins.
Providing foods in proportion to each other and in
proportion to the body's needs.
|BASAL METABOLIC RATE
The rate at which the body uses energy for maintaining
involuntary functions such as cellular activity,
respiration, and heartbeat when at rest.
A disease resulting from inadequate thiamin in the diet.
Yellow pigment found in plants that is converted to
vitamin A in the body. Acts as an antioxidant.
One of the B vitamins.
An instrument that oxidizes food samples tto measure their
A substance that can neutralize both acids and bases to
minimize change in the pH of a solution.
The energy required to raise the temperature of one gram
of water one degree Celsius. Although we refer to the
energy found in foods as calories they are actually
An organic comound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen. It is one of the macronutrients we derive energy
from at a rate of 4 kcals per gram.
A cancer causing substance.
The breakdown of complex substnces into simpler ones.
A syndrome resulting from intestinal sensitivity to
gluten, a protein substance of wheat flour especially and
of other grains.
An indigestible polysaccharide made of many glucose
Cracks in the corners of the mouth, due primarily to a
deficiency of riboflavin in the diet.
A fat like substance found only in animal products;
important in many body functions but also implicated in
heart disease. One of the sterols.
A substance that prevents the development of a fatty
liver; frequently considered one of the B-complex vitamins.
A very small emulsified lipoprotein that transports fat in
Scientific name for B12.
A component of an enzyme system that facilitates the
working of the enzyme.
Principal protein of connective tissue.
Yellowish fluid produced in the first few days of
lactation that precedes breast milk.
Excessive loss of water from the body.
Any of the various small soluble polysaccharides found in
the leaves of starch forming plants and in the human
alimentary canal as a product of starch digestion.
A metabolic disorder charcterized by excess blood sugar
and urine sugar.
The food and beverages a person eats and drinks.
The breakdown of ingested foods into particles of a size
and chemical composition that the body can absorb.
A lipid containing glycerol and two fatty acids.
A sugar made of two chemically combined monosaccharides,
or simple sugars.
|DISCRETIONARY KCALORIE ALLOWANCE
The amount of kcals available to meet energy needs after a
person has consumed enough nutrient dense foods to meet
all nutrients needs for the day.
A substance that stimulates urination.
A condition in which the wall of the large intestine
weakens and balloons out, forming pouches where fecal
matter can be entrapped and cause an infection known as
The presence of an abnormally high amount of fluid in the
Term used to denote foods that contain high kcals, but low
amounts of protein, vitamins and minerals.
A substance that promotes the mixing of foods, such as oil
and water in a salad dressing.
The capacity to do work. The energy in food is chemical
energy. The body can convert this chemical energy into
mechanical, electrical or heat energy.
The addition of nutrients to food, often to resore what
has been lost in processing.
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the cell.
The study of the factors that contribute to the occurrence
of a disease in a population.
|ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID
Any of the nine amino acids that the human body cannot
manufacture and that must be supplied by the diet, as they
are necessary for growth and maintenance.
|ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID
A fatty acid that the human body cannot manufacture and
that must be supplied by the dietas it is necessary for
groeth and maintenance.
An organic compound whose molecules contain glycerol and
fatty acids; fat insulates the body, protects organs,
carries fat soluble vitamins, is a constituent of cell
membranes, and adds flavor to foods.
A simple lipid containing only carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen; a constituent of fat.
Large green meaty bean sold fresh in the pod. Smaller white
or tan fava beans are dried or canned and cannot be used
interchangeably with the fresh beans. Common in Middle
Eastern and Italian cooking. Also known as broad bean,
horse bean, and Windsor bean.
Light green plant with slightly bulbous end and stalks with
feathery dark green leaves; somewhat like celery. Used like
a root vegetable. Delicate licorice or anise flavor.
Tan seeds of the fenugreek plant, with the flavor similar to
artificial maple flavoring. Essential in the preparation of
Asian Indian spice mixtures.
|FOOD GROUP PLANS
Diet-planning tools that sort foods into groups based on
nutrient content and specify the amounts of foods that
people should eat from each group.
Products derived from plants or animals that can be taken
into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the
maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissues.
Includes several types of mustard family plants grown for
their greens. Dark green to reddish brown leaves are
steamed, boiled or stir-fried. Also known as Chinese green
Mustard or dai gai choy.
A six carbon monosaccharide, one of the two that make up
lactose, or milk sugar.
A six carbon monosaccharide found in sucrose, honey, and
many fruits and vegeatbles; the major carbohydrate found
in the body.
|HEART OF PALM
White or light green interior of the palm tree, especially
popular in the Philippines. Available canned.
A complex iron containing compound that is a component of
A high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
A low level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
A protein lacking or deficient in one or more of the
essential amino acids.
Describes a substance that does not contain carbon.
A gelatinous seaweed extract added to milk or rum as a
beverage in the Caribbean.
Brazilian shrub or small tree with 1/2 to 1 1/2 inch fruit
clustered like grapes. Gelatinous pulp is mild and sweet.
A unit of energy preferred by some professionals instead
of the heat energy measurements of the calorie system for
calculating fod energy. Sometimes reffered to
Sour,cucumber-like vegetable native to the Philippines.
Used to achieve a sour, cool flavor in Filipino cooking.
|KCALORIE (ENERGY) CONTROL
Management of food energy intake.
Formation of a protein called keratin, which, in vitamin A
deficiency, occurs instead of mucus formation; leads to a
drying and hardening of epithelial tissue.
One thousdand calories, or the energy required to raise
the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree
celsius. It is the preferred unit of measurement of food
energy. A kilocalorie is referred to as just "calorie" on
most alln food labels.
A digestive enzyme produced by the small intestine that
breaks down the lactose
A disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose and found
Plants of the bean and pea family, with seeds that are
rich in protein compared to other plant derived foods.
Small Chinese fruit with translucent white flesh and a thin
brown hull and single pit. The flavor is grape-like but
less sweet. Available fresh or canned. Dried litchis, also
called litchi nuts, have a different flavor and texture.
Also known as lychee.
A forma of anemia caused by the presence of abnormally
large blood cells.
A poor state of health resulting from a lack, excess, or
imbalance of the nutrients needed by the body.
Fruit native to India, yellow and red when ripe, averaging
one pound in weight. The flesh is pale and sour when the
fruit is unripe, bright orange and very sweet when ripe.
Used unripe for pickles and chutneys, ripe as fresh fruit.
Providing enough but not too much of a substance.
Small, yellow tropical fruit similar to cherries with a
slightly tart flavor. Two varieties are available.
|NEGATIVE NITROGEN BALANCE
Nitrogen output exceeds nitrogen intake.
Compounds in foods that do not fit within the six classes
of nutrients (water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats,
vitamins and minerals).
A measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the
energy it provides. The more nutrients and the fewer
kcalories, the higher the nutrient density.
Nourishing substances in food that can be digested,
absorbed, and metabolized by the body; needed for growth,
maintenance and reproduction.
1. The sum of the processes by which an organism obtains,
assimilates, and utilizes food. 2. The scientific study
of these processes.
Condition of being 30 percent above one's ideal body
Small green torpedo shaped pod with angular sides. A
tropical African plant valued for the carbohydrates in it
that are sticky and mucilangenous. It is used as a
vegetable and to thicken soups and stews.
A monosaturated fatty acid.
A substance or molecule that contains a carbon-carbon or a
carbon-hydrogen bond. In agriculture the terms has come
to mean growing crops and livestock according to organic
standards set forth by the federal or state governments.
A saturated fatty acid.
Light orange fruit that tastes like a cross between a banana
and a melon. Native to the Americas, it is approximately 6
Nonnutrient compounds found in plant derived foods that
have biological activity in the body.
Small, bright red, ribbed fruit of a shrub or small tree
native to northeastern South America; found also in the
Caribbean and Florida. Thin skin with orange flesh "melts"
in the mouth. Sweet with a slightly bitter bite.
Precursors to vitamins that can be converted into vitamins
in the body (e.g. beta-carotene can be converted into
Vitamin A in the body).
(chee GUNG) A Chinese system that combines movement,
meditation and breathing techniques to enhance the flow
of "qi" energy within the body.
|QUALITY OF LIFE
A person's perceived physical and mental well-being.
Cereal native to the Andes; prepared like rice. Very high
Inflammation of the intrestinal tissue caused by exposure
The use of x-rays, gamma-rays, or atomic particles to
destroy cancer cells.
A process of choosing the members of an experimental and
control group without bias.
The first crop of crystals harvested during sugar
processing. Raw sugar cannot be sold in the U.S. because
it contains too much filth (dirt, insect fragments,
etc...). Sugar sold as "raw sugar" domestically has
actually gone through over half of the refining steps.
Hyperglycemia that results from the release of
counterregulatory hormones following nighttime
hypoglycemia; also called the Somogyi phenomenon.
The muscular terminal part of the intestine, extending
from the sigmoid colon to the anus.
At least 25% fewer kcalories per serving than the
A condition that sometimes develops when a severely
malnourished person is aggressively fed; charachterized by
electrolyte and fluid imbalance and hyperglycemia.
A standard against which to measure the quality of other
protein (e.g. albumin).
The process by which the coarse parts of a food are
removed. When wheat is refined into flour, the bran, germ
and husk are removed, leaving only the endosperm.
The technique that applies pressure or message on areas of
the hands or feet. Also known as "zone therapy".
A backward flow.
Inflammation in the esophagus related to the reflux of
acid stomach contents.
A person who has completed a minimum of a bachelors
degreeb from an accredited university or college, has
completed approved course work and supervised practice
program, has passed a national examination, and maintains
registration through continuing professional education.
Listing; with respect to health professionals, listing
with a professional organization that requires specific
course work, experience and the passing of an examination.
The reflux of a small amounts of acidic gastric substances
in the mouth.
The hormone of late pregnancy.
In the body, the dismantling and re-formation of a
structure such as bone.
Pertaining to the kidneys.
The severe stabbing pain that occurs when a kidney stone
passes through a ureter.
A bone disorder in patients with chronic renal failure; a
consequence of increased parathyroid hormone secretion,
reduced serum calcium, acidosis, and impaired Vitamin D
activation by the kidneys.
Blood concentration of a substance that exceeds the
kidneys' capacity for reabsorption and leads to the
appearance of the substance in urine.
An enzyme from the kidneys that activates angiotensin.
Repeating an experiment and getting the same results. The
skeptical scientist, on hearing a new, exciting, finding
will ask, "has it been replicated yet?" If it hasn't, the
scientist will withhold judgment regarding the finding's
The lowest continuing intake of a nutrient that will
maintain a specified criterion of adequacy.
The surgical removal of a part of an organ or body
Material left in the intestine after digestion; includes
mostly dietary fiber and undigested starches and proteins.
Starches that escape digestion and absorption in the
intestines of healthy people.
(re-ZIST-in) A hormone produced by adipose cells that
induces insulin resistance.
Inadequate gas exchange between the air and blood,
resulting in lower oxygen and higher carbon dioxide levels.
|RESTING METABOLIC RATE (RMR)
Similar to the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), a measure of
energy use of a person at rest in a comfortable setting,
but with less stringent criteria for recent food intake
and physical activity. Consequently the RMR is
significanly higher than the BMR.
Immature red blood cells released into the blood by bone
The layer of light sensitive nerve cells lining the back
of the inside of the eye; consists of rods and cones.
Chemically related compounds with biological activity
similar to that of retinol; metabolites of retinol.
|RETINOL ACTIVITY EQUIVALENTS (RAE)
A measure of Vitamin A activity; the amount of retinol
that the body will derive from a food containing preformed
retinol or its precursor beta-carotene.
|RETINOL-BINDING PROTEIN (RBP)
The specific protein responsible for transporting retinol.
A disease of the immune system involving painful
inflammation of the joints and related structures.
The visual pigment in the retinal rods of the eyes which
allows one to see at night; its formation requires Vitamin
One of the B vitamins (B2); the coenzyme forms are flavin
mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).
Protein making organelles in cells; composed of RNA and
The vitamin D deficiency disease in children characterized
by bone softening and deformities.
A condition or behavior associated with an elevated
frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal.
Leading risk factors for chronic disease include obesity,
cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high blood
cholesterol, physical inactivity, and a diet high in
saturated fats and low in vegetables, fruits and whole
An artificial sweetener that has been approved for use in
the United States. In Canada, approval for use in foods
and beverages is pending; currently availableonly in
pharmacies and only as a tabltop seetner, not as an
Fluid produced in the mouth that helps food digestion.
Exocrine glands that secrete saliva into the mouth.
A bacterium that can cause food poisoning.
A compound composed of an ion other than H+ and a negative
ion other than OH-. An example is sodium chloride (Na+Cl-
A characteristic of an individuals who respond to a high
salt intake with an increase in blood pressure or to a low
salt intake with a decrease in blood pressure.
(SAR-koh-PEE-nee-ah) Loss of skeletal muscle mass,
strength, and quantity.
Having the power to supress hunger and inhibit eating.
(say-she-AY-shun) The feeling of satisfaction and fullness
that occurs during a meal and halts eating. Satiation
determines how much food is eaten during a meal.
(sah-TIE-eh-tee) The feeling of satisfaction that occurs
after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal.
Satiety determines how much time passes between meals.
Less than 0.5 g of saturated fat and 0.5 g of trans-fat
|SATURATED FATTY ACID
A fatty acid in which carbon is joined with four other
atoms; i.e., all carbon atoms are bound to the maximum
possible number of hydrogen atoms. A saturated fat is
composed of triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids
(SKITZ-oh-FREN-ee-ah) Mental illness characterized by an
altered concept of reality and, in some cases, delusions
A disease characterized by bleeding gums, pain in the
joints, lethargy and other problems. Caused by a
deficeincy of Viatmin C (ascorbic acid).
A nutrient deficiency caused by something other than an
inadequate intake such as a disease condition or drug
interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use,
hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient.
(see-CREET-in) A hormone produced by cells in the duodenum
wall that target the pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich
A periodic squeezing or partitioning of the intestine at
intervals along its length by its circular muscles.
Menus with two or more choices in some or all menu
A trace element.
|SELF-MONITORING OF BLOOD GLUCOSE (SMBG)
Home monitoring of blood glucose levels using a glucose
A membrane that allows some particles to pass through, but
|STANDARD OF IDENTITY
A list of specifications for the manufacture of certain
foods that stipulates their required contents.
Small, deeply ribbed, oval fruit with thin skin shaped like
a star when sliced. Green and sour when unripe, yellow and
slightly sweet (though still tart) when ripe. Unripe fruit
is used in Indian and Chinese dishes. Ripe fruit is eaten
A polysaccharide composed of glucose molecules; the major
form of energy found in plants.
A saturated fatty acid.
A disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose, often
called "table sugar".
Agents used as preservatives in foods to eliminate
bacteria, preserve freshness, prevent browning, and
increase storage life; can cause acute asthma attacks, and
even death, in people who are sensitive to them.
Sour red Middle Eastern spice made from the ground berries
of a non-toxic variety of the sumac plant.
Native to the United States; over 60 varieties. Seeds eaten
by Native Americans raw, dried, and powdered (in breads).
Unopened flower head can be cooked and eaten like an
artichoke. Petals are dried and used like saffron in Southwest.
Sweet, white fleshed fruit fruit related to the cherimoya
and soursop. Also known as sugar apple.
Aromatic berries with a hot flavor popular in some Chinese
and Japanese dishes. Also known as fagara.
Tart pulp from the pod of a tamarind bean. Available in the
pod, as a paste, in a brick, or as a liquid concentrate.
Starchy underground vegetable similar to cassava with brown
hairy skin and white grayish flesh, common to the Caribbean
and Polynesia. In Hawaii the boiled, pounded tao paste
called poi is a staple in the traditional diet. The large
leaves are also eaten. Also known as eddo, dasheen and tannier.
Large silver fish of the herring family found off the coasts
of Mexico and Central America.
Small high-protein bean with wrinkled skin. Grows wild in
the southwest United States.
An agent with the potential of causing birth defects.
One of the B vitamins; B1
Hormone containing iodine that is secreted by the thyroid
Tropical plant popular in Polynesia (not related to tea).
Ti leaves are used to wrap food packets, and the root is
eaten and brewed as a beverage.
Small freshwater fish with sweet, firm, white flesh.
Small, light green, tomato-like fruit common in Mexico. The
flesh is slightly tart and is eaten cooked, usually in
sauces and condiments. Available fresh or canned.
A complication of pregnancy charachterized by high blood
pressure, edema, vomiting, presence of protein in the
urine, and other symptoms.
A protein compound, the form in which iron is transported
in the blood.
A lipid containing glycerol and three fartty acids.
Black (French) or white (Italian) fungus found underground.
Truffles very from the size of small marbles to as large as
tennis balls and are distinctly flavored, similar to a wild
mushroom. Available fresh or canned.
A digestive enzyme, produced in the pancreas, that breaks
Citrus fruit that is a cross between a pommelo and a
mandarin orange, with a very bumpy yellow-orange skin and a
sweet orange like flavor. Popular in Jamaica.
A lesion of the skin or mucous membranes characterized by
inflammation and damaged tissues.
Inflammatory bowel disease that involves the colon.
Inflammation affects the mucosa and submucosa.
Removal of fluids and solutes from the blood by using
pressure to transfer the blood across a semipermeable
(um-BILL-ih-cul) The ropelike structure through which the
fetus's veins and arteries reach the placenta; the route
of nourishment and oxygen to the fetus and the route of
waste disposal from the fetus. The scar in the middle of
the abdomenthat marks the former attachment of the
umbilical cord is the umbilicus (um-BILL-ih-cus), commonly
referred to as the "belly button".
Deficient of nutrients.
Body weight below an accepted norm by more than 10 percent.
|UNSATURATED FATTY ACID
A fatty acid that lacks hydrogen atoms and has at least
one double bond between carbons. Includes monounsaturated
and polyunsaturated fatty acids. An unsaturated fat is
composed of triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids
|UNSPECIFIED EATING DISORDERS
Eating disorders that do not meet the defined criteria for
specific eating disorders.
The main nitrogenous component of urine, resulting from
the breakdown of amino acids.
|UREA KINETIC MODELING
A method of determining the adequacy of dialysis treatment
by calculating urea clearance from the blood.
A disease in which abnormal levels of urea accumulates in
the blood. Also called azotemia (AZE-oh-TEE-me-ah).
The cluster of symptoms associated with a GFR below 15
mL/min, including uremia, anemia, bone disease, hormonal
imbalances, bleeding impairment, increased cardiovascular
disease risk and reduced immunity.
(YOU-ter-us) The muscular organ within which the infant
develops before birth.
(vay-GOT-oh-mee) Surgery that severs the vagus nerve in
order to supress gastric acid secretion. This surgery may
impair gastric emptying and require an additional
pyloroplasty procedure to allow drainage.
The cranial nerve that regulates hydrochloric acid
secretion and peristalsis. Effects elsewhere in the body
include regulation of the heart and bronchiole
Having the quality of being founded on fact or evidence.
Factors that change. A variable may depend on other
variable (e.g. a child's height depends on his age), or it
may be independent (e.g. a child's height does not depend
on his eye color). Sometimes both variables correlate
with a third variable (a child's height and eye color both
depend on his genetics).
(Var-ih-seez) Abnormally dialated blood vessels.
Eating a wide selection of foods within and among the food
(VAS-oh-kon-STRICK-tor) A substance that constricts or
narrows the blood vessels.
A person who eats nothing derived from an animal; the
strictest type of vegetarian.
A general term used to describe people who exclude meat,
poultry, fish or other animal-derived foods from their
Vessels that carry blood to the heart.
Juice of unripe lemons used in Middle Eastern fare to give a
tang to dishes.
|VERY LOW SODIUM
35 mg or less per serving.
(VILL-ee, VILL-eye) Fingerlike projections from the folds
of the small intestine; singular villus.
A gel-like consistency.
Organic substance required by the body in small amounts to
perform numerous functions.
All naturally occurring compounds with the biological
activity of retinol, the alcohol form of vitamin A.
|VITAMIN A ACTIVITY
A term reffering to both the active forms of vitamin A and
the precursor forms in food without distinguishing between
|VITAMIN B COMPLEX
All known water soluble vitamins except C; includes
thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), pyridoxine (B6), niacin,
folic acid, cobalamin (B12), pantothenic acid and biotin.
A B vitamin charachterized by the presence of cobalt. The
active forms of coenzyme B12 are methylcobalamin and
A family of compounds-pyridoxal, pyridoxine and
pyridoxamine. The primary active coenzyme form is PLP
|VLDL (VERY LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN)
The type of lipoprotein made primarily by liver cells to
transport lipids to various tissues in the body; composed
primarily of triglycerides.
Expulsion of the contents of the stomach up through the
esophagus to the mouth.
A form of plaque, susceptible to rupture, that is lipid
rich and only has only a thin fibrous barrier between the
arterial lumen and the plaque's lipid core.
an anthropometric measurement used to assess a person's
Light green Japanese condiment from root of a plant similar
to horseradish with a powerful pungency. Available fresh or
powdered; geen dyed horseradish sometimes sold as wasabi.
The gradual atrophy (loss) of body tissue; associated with
protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) or chronic disease.
The balance between water intake and output.
Aquatic, walnut size tuber with fibrous brown peel and
crunchy, sweet, ivory colored flesh. Available fresh or canned.
The rare condition in which body water contents are too
high in all body fluid compartments.
Seeds often eaten in Africa (called egusi, toasted, ground
or pounded into meal or paste for thickening soups and
stews) and in Asia (toasted as a snack; sometimes flavored
or dyed red).
White, oblong fruit of a vine with starchy flesh, common in
Gradually replacing breast milk with infant formula or
other foods appropriate to an infants diet.
Water drawn from ground water by tapping into an aquifer.
A neurological disorder typically associated with chronic
alcoholism and caused by a deficiency of the B vitamin
thiamin; also called alcohol-related dementia.
A family of water insoluble proteins in wheat; includes
gliadin proteins that are toxic to persons with celiac
Three types of white bean are widely used: the cannellini or
kidney bean; Great Northern Beans, which are large, soft and
mild tasting; and the smaller, firmer navy beans.
Pure sucrose or "table sugar", produced by dissolving,
concentrating and recrystallizing raw sugar.
A grain milled in its entirety (all but the husk), not
Seeds of a native American grass.
An alcoholic beverage made by fermenting grape juice.
Edible legume called the "soybean of the tropics". All
parts of the plant are consumed, including the shoots,
leaves, flowers, pods and seeds, and tuberous root. The
pods are large, from 12 to 24 inches long, and feature
Round green skin member of the squash family with a waxy
white coating and a transluescent white green or pink flesh.
Taste similar to zucchini and used in Chinese dishes.
Sauce developed by the Lea and Perrins company of Great
Britain that includes anchovies, garlic, onions, molasses,
sugar or corn sweetner, tamarind and vinegar among other
(Zan-tho-fills) Pigments found in plants; responsible for
the color changes seen in autumn leaves.
(zer-off-THAL-mee-uh) A progressive blindness resulting
from severe Viatamin A deficiency.
(zee-ROW-sis) Abnormal drying of the skin and mucous
membranes; a sign of Vitamin A deficiency.
Dry mouth caused by reduced salivary flow.
Sweet tasting root with brown skin and white flesh native to
the Andes. Eaten throughout South America. Mistakenly
called jicama. Also known as yakon or leafcup.
Tuber with rough brown skin and a starchy white flesh (not
related to the orange colored sweet potato called a Yam in
the U.S.). Many varieties; may grow quite large, up to 100
pounds. Found in all tropical regions. Yam paste made in
West Africa is known as fufu.
A variety of mint used in some Native American teas.
Milk fermented by specific bacterial cultures.
Spiky leaved dessert plant with large pulpy fruit that
ripens in summer. Eaten fresh, boiled, baked, or dried into
Drab colored fruit of the sapodilla tree. It has a has
granular, mildly sweet flesh, which can be yellow, red or
black. The zapote is a member of the persimmon family.
Also known as sapodilla, black sapote, and naseberry. The
sapodilla tree is also the source of chicle used in chewing gum.
A syndrome characterized by the development of gastrin-
secreting tumors (gastinomas); most often located in the
pancreas and duodenum.
The product of the union of ovum and sperm; so-called for
the first two weeks after fertilization.