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Department of Public Health - Glossary List

Term Definition
AAC The AIDS Action Council provides media and policy focus to federal AIDS legislative and policy issues.
AAR Annual Administrative Report. The AAR is required of all CARE Act Title I grantees, and provides information on agencies funded by CARE Act Title I.
ABDOMEN The lower belly
ABSORPTION The taking up of nutrients into the intestinal cells
ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE The amount of a sweetner that individuals can safely consume each day over the course of a lifetime without adverse effect. It includes a 100-fold factor.
ACCREDITED Approved; in the case of medical centers or universities, certified by an agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Education.
ACELLULAR VACCINE Vaccine containing partial cellular material as opposed to complete cells.
ACESULFAME POTASSIUM A low calorie sweetner approved by the FDA. Also known as acesulfame-K (K is the symbol for potassium).
ACETALDEHYDE An intermediate in alcohol metabolism.
ACETONE BREATH A distinctive fruity smell that is detectable on the breath of a person who is experiencing ketosis.
ACETYL COA A 2-carbon compound (acetate or acetic acid)to which a molecule of CoA is attached.
ACID-BASE BALANCE The equilibrium in the body between acid and base concentrations.
ACIDOSIS Above normal acidity in the blood and body fluids.
ACMS Automated Case Management System (IMACS). ACMS is a corporation that developed IMACS.
ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS) The end stage of HIV infection in which severe complications are manifested.
ACROSS THE DESK The official act of introducing a bill or resolution. The measure is given to the Chief Clerk or his or her representative at the Assembly Desk in the Assembly Chamber or to the Secretary of the Senate or his or her representative in the Senate Chamber. The measure then receives a number and becomes a public document available from the bill room (or at www.leginfo.ca.gov). Each proposed amendment to a measure also must be put across the desk in the Assembly or Senate in order to be considered for adoption.
ACRS AIDS Contractor Reporting System. ACRS is used by some providers of outpatient medical care in Los Angeles County to report the number of clients and services provided.
ACT A bill passed by the Legislature and enacted into law.
ACTG AIDS Clinical Trial Group. A national group that advises the National Institutes of Health on clinical trials related to HIV/AIDS treatments.
ACTIVE IMMUNITY The production of antibodies against a specific disease by the immune system. Active immunity can be acquired in two ways, either by contracting the disease or through vaccination. Active immunity is usually permanent, meaning an individual is protected from the disease for the duration of their lives.
ACTIVE VITAMIN D The 1,25-dihydroxy form of vitamin D that promotes calcium balance and bone mineralization.
ACUPUNCTURE A technique that involves piercing the skin with long thin needles at specific anatomical points to relieve pain or illness. Acupuncture sometimes uses heat, pressure, friction, suction, or electromagnetic energy to stimulate the points.
ACUTE A short-term, intense health effect.
a single or short-term exposure; used to describe brief exposures and effects which appear promptly after exposure
ACUTE DISEASE A disease that develops quickly, produces sharp symptoms, and runs a short course.
ACUTE PEM Protein-energy malnutrition caused by a recent severe food restriction or hypermetabolism; characterized in children by thinness for height (wasting).
ADA Americans with Disabilities Act. Federal legislation designed to protect and ensure the rights of the disabled. The ADA protects people with HIV and AIDS.
ADAP AIDS Drug Assistance Program. ADAP is supported by Title II of the CARE Act. In California, ADAP is funded by the Title II ADAP set-aside, state general funds, Title II general funds and a mandatory manufacturer’s rebate.
ADAPTIVE THERMOGENESIS Adjustments in energy expenditure related to changes in environment such as cold and to physiological events such as overfeeding, trauma, and changes in hormone status.
ADDITIVES Substances not normally consumed as foods but added to food either intentionally or by accident.
ADENOMAS Cancers that arise from glandular tissues.
ADEQUACY (DIETARY) Providing all the essential nutrients, fiber and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health.
ADHC Adult Day Health Care. A licensed category of care administered by the State of California.
ADIPOSE TISSUE The body's fat tissue, which consists of masses of fat storing cells.
ADJUVANT A substance (e.g. aluminum salt) that is added during production to increase the body's immune response to a vaccine.
ADOLESCENCE The period from the beginning of puberty until maturity.
ADRENAL GLANDS Glands that are adjacent to and just above each kidney.
ADVERSE EVENTS Undesirable experiences occurring after immunization that may or may not be related to the vaccine.
ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECT a change in body function or cell structure that might lead to disease or health problems
ADVERSE REACTION Unusual responses to food including allergies and intollerances.
ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON IMMUNIZATION PRACTICES (ACIP A panel of 10 experts who make recommendations on the use of vaccines in the United States. The panel is advised on current issues by representatives from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Medical Association and others. The recommendations of the ACIP guide immunization practice at the federal, state and local level.
AEROBIC requiring oxygen
AETC AIDS Education Training Centers. The AETC are supported by Part F of the CARE Act and are responsible for providing AIDS education to health care professionals.
AFDC Aids to Families with Dependent Children.
AGENCY A public or private organization acting for others.
AGPA Associate Governmental Program Analyst
AHF AIDS Healthcare Foundation
AHPA Associate Health Program Advisor
AIAC American Indian Alaskan Native
AICC American Indian Children's Council.
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Originally called GRID (gay related immune deficiency), the term “AIDS” was proposed by Bruce Voeller and adopted in July 1982.
AIDS ENTEROPATHIES The diarrhea and malabsorption associated with AIDS for which no known cause has been identified.
AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX (ARC) The cluster of mild symptoms that sometimes occur early in the course of HIV infection.
AJR Assembly Joint Resolution
ALBUMINURIA Loss of protein in the urine.
ALCOHOL A class of organic compounds containing hydroxyl (oxygen+hydrogen) groups. Ethanol, a type of alcohol is found in beer, wine and distilled spirits.
ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE An enzyme that converts ethanol (grain alcohol) to acetalhyde.
ALDOSTERONE A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that stimulates the reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys; aldosterone also regulates chloride and potassium concentrations.
ALIMENTARY HYPOGLYCEMIA Also known as postgastrectomy hypoglycemia, is a type of gycemia that occurs after gastric surgery.
ALITAME An artificial sweetner that is 2000 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar) made from two amino acids (alanine and aspartic acid). FDA approval pending.
ALKALOSIS Above normal alkalinity (base) in the blood and body fluids.
ALLERGY A condition in which the body has an exaggerated immune response to a substance, e.g. food or drug. Also known as hypersensitivity or an allergic reaction.
ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN The chief protein in human breast milk. In comparison, casien is the chief protein in cow's milk.
ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL The most biologically active vitamin E compound.
ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES Approaches to medical diagnosis and treatment that are not fully accepted by the established medical community.
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE Senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT) is a degenerative disease of the brain involving memory loss and major structural changes in the neuron networks.
AMCWP AIDS Medi-Cal Waiver Program. Administered by the State of California, AMCWP supports in-home health and attendant care.
AMENORRHEA The abscence of or cessation of menstration. Primary amenorrhea is menarche delayed beyond 16 years of age. Secondary amenorrhea is the absence of three to six consecutive menstrual cycles.
AMINO ACIDS The structural units that make up proteins.
AMYLASE An enzyme that breaks down starches; a component of saliva.
AMYLOPECTIN A component of starch, consisting of many glucose units joined in branching patterns.
AMYLOSE A component of starch, consisting of many glucose units joined in a straight chain without branching.
ANABOLISM The synthesis of new materials for cellular growth, maintenance, or repair of the body.
ANAL SEX Occurs when a penis is inserted into a person's anus
ANAPHYLAXIS An immediate and severe allergic reaction to a substance, e.g. food or drug. Symptoms of anaphylaxis include breathing difficulties, loss of consciousness, and a drop in blood pressure. This condition can be fatal and requires immediate medical attention.
ANEMIA A deficiency of oxygen-carrying material in the blood.
ANONYMOUS HIV TESTING Testing a person for HIV without the person having to give personal identifying information; all specimens are marked with a code number and cannot be linked to the person. Positive anonympus HIV tests are not reportable.
ANOREXIA NERVOSA A disorder in which a person refuses food and loses weight to the point of emaciation or even death.
ANTHRAX An acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in hoofed mammals and can also infect humans.
ANTIBIOTICS Medicine used to kill or stop the growth of bacteria; antibiotics are used to treat diseases such as chlamydia or gonorrhea
ANTIBODY A protein found in the blood that is produced in response to foreign substances, e.g. bacteria or viruses, invading the body. Antibodies protect the body from disease by binding to these organisms and destroying them.
Protein molecule produced by white blood cells to bind up and disable infectious agents, such as viruses and bacteria.
ANTIGEN Substance - such as a virus or bacterium - that provokes an immune response when introduced into the body
Foreign substance e.g. bacteria or virus, in the body that is capable of causing disease. The presence of antigens in the body triggers an immune response, usually the production of antibodies and cytotoxic T cells.
ANTIOXIDANT A substance that prevents or delays the breakdown of other substances by oxygen; often added to food to retard deterioration and rancidity.
ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY Any drug, agent or therapy used against HIV or other retroviruses. An antiretroviral drug is any compound that stops or suppresses the reproduction or activity of HIV (or another retrovirus) in a patient’s bloodstream.
ANUS The opening to the rectum, where bowel movements leave the body
APHA American Public Health Association
API Asian and Pacific Islanders. A category to describe the racial/ethnic characteristics of individuals.
APLA AIDS Project Los Angeles
ARACHIDONIC ACID An essential polyunsaturated fatty acid.
ARC AIDS Related Condition (Complex). Formerly used to denote a medium acuity of HIV disease.
ARF Adult Residential Facility. A licensed category of care administered by the State of California. The Office of AIDS Programs and Policy (OAPP) maintains 2 ARF contracts.
ARS Acute Retroviral Syndrome
ARTERIOSCELEROSIS Condition charterized by a thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries and a reultant loss of elasticity.
ASBESTOS a group of fibrous minerals that have been mined and used extensively over the last century. Their tremendous strength and extreme resistance to heat and chemicals have made them ideal for use in a wide variety of commercial products.
ASC AIDS Service Center
ASCORBIC ACID Vitamin C
ASO AIDS Service Organization
ASSOCIATION The degree to which the occurrence of two variables or events are linked. Association describes a situation where the likelihood of one event occurring depends on the presence of another event or variable. However, an association between two variables does not necessarily imply a cause and effect relationship. The term association and relationship are often used interchangeably. See causal association.
ASTHO Association of State and Territorial Health Officers
ATHEROSCLEROSIS A type of ateriosclerosis in which lipids, especially cholesterol, accumulate in the arteries and obstruct blood flow.
ATS Alternative Test Site, Anonymous Test Site. Anonymous testing for HIV is provided at ATS.
AUTHORIZING COMMITTEE The committee of either the House of Representatives or U.S. Senate responsible for drafting legislation. The authorizing committees for health related matters are usually the Commerce Committee in the House of Representatives and the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee of the U.S. Senate.
AUTOINNOCULATION Transmission of an infection from one part of the body to another. Infection is transmitted by failing to wash one's hands after touching an infected area and then touching another part of the body.
AVIDIN A substance found in raw egg white that acts as an antagonist of biotin, one of the B vitamins.
AZT Azidothymidine (Zidovudine). The first medication approved for anti-retroviral therapy.
BACKGROUND LEVEL normal environmental concentration of a chemical
BACTERIUM (PL. BACTERIA) Germ which can enter the body and cause an infection or illness. Infections caused by bacteria can usually be cured with antibiotics. Some STDs caused by bacteria include gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia.
BALANCE (DIETARY) Providing foods in proportion to each other and in proportion to the body's needs.
BASAL METABOLIC RATE The rate at which the body uses energy for maintaining involuntary functions such as cellular activity, respiration, and heartbeat when at rest.
BCP Budget Change Proposal. Following submission of the annual State of California budget, BCP are proposed by members of the legislature and, less often, of the Administration.
BCP (BUDGET CHANGE PROPOSAL) A document prepared by a state agency, and submitted to the Department of Finance, to propose and document budget changes to support operations of the agency in the next fiscal year; used in preparing the Governor's budget.
BERIBERI A disease resulting from inadequate thiamin in the diet.
BETA-CAROTENE Yellow pigment found in plants that is converted to vitamin A in the body. Acts as an antioxidant.
BHS Behavioral Health Services
BICAMERAL Refers to a legislature consisting of two houses (see Unicameral).
BIOACCUMULATION the absorption, via breathing, eating, drinking or active uptake, and concentration of a substance in plants or animals
BIOTIN One of the B vitamins.
BOMB CALORIMETER An instrument that oxidizes food samples tto measure their energy content.
BRACHIAL NEURITIS Inflammation of nerves in the arm causing muscle weakness and pain.
BREAKTHROUGH INFECTION Development of a disease despite a person's having responded to a vaccine.
BRGS Behavioral Risk Group(s) is an organizing principle for planning care and prevention services. The individuals to be targeted for services are organized by behavior they have in common.
BUFFER A substance that can neutralize both acids and bases to minimize change in the pH of a solution.
BY Budget Year. The number of months associated with a budget period. Budget years are not always twelve months long, do not always begin in January and frequently vary among funding sources.
CAEAR COALITION Cities Advocating Emergency AIDS Relief Coalition. Established in 1991, CAEAR advocates for the legislative, administrative, budgetary, appropriations and public policy interests of Title I and III consumers, grantees, planning councils and community-based providers.
CAL-SPAN (THE CALIFORNIA CHANNEL) The cable television channel that televises Assembly and Senate proceedings.
CALORIE The energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius. Although we refer to the energy found in foods as calories they are actually kilocalories.
CANCER disease characterized by the rapid and uncontrolled growth of aberrant cells into malignant tumors
CANCER CLUSTER a term used to describe any increase in the number of cancer cases over what would be expected in a particular area during a specific period of time
CANDIDIASIS Fungus that usually infects the mucous membranes, commonly occurring in the mouth (thrush) or in the vagina (yeast membrane). These infections usually result in painful or burning red lesions with or without white spots.
CAPS Center for AIDS Prevention Studies. A university-based research program located in San Francisco.
CARBOHYDRATE An organic comound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It is one of the macronutrients we derive energy from at a rate of 4 kcals per gram.
CARCINOGEN A cancer causing substance.
a substance that causes cancer
CARE ACT Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act of 1990, amended and reauthorized in 1995 and again in 2000.
CARE/HIPP Health Insurance Premium Payment. Funded by Title II of the CARE Act and administered by the OA. CARE/HIPP will pay the insurance premium costs for eligible clients with HIV/AIDS. CARE/HIPP cannot be used to purchase a new insurance policy.
CASC Community Assessment Service Centers.
CATABOLISM The breakdown of complex substnces into simpler ones.
CAUSAL ASSOCIATION The presence or absence of a variable, e.g. smoking, is responsible for an increase or decrease in another variable, e.g. cancer. A change in exposure leads to a change in the outcome of interest.
CBA Caring for Babies with AIDS
CBC Congressional Black Caucus
CBO Community Based Organization. Usually a non-profit organization.
CCLAD California Conference of Local AIDS Driectors.
CCLHO California Conference of Local Health Officers
CCU Crack Cocaine Users
CD4 One of two protein structures on the surface of a human cell that allows HIV to attach, enter, and thus infect a cell.
CD4 CELL COUNT The most commonly used surrogate marker for assessing the state of the immune system. As CD4 cell count declines, the risk of developing opportunistic infections increases. The normal range of CD4 cell counts is 500 to 1500 per cubic millimeter of blood. CD4 counts should be rechecked at least every six to 12 months if CD4 counts are greater than 500/mm3. If the count is lower, testing every three months is usual.
CDBG Community Development Block Grant. A federal program designed to support housing and related services. Typically, the CDBG program is coordinated with local HOPWA programs.
CDC The Atlanta, Georgia based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a federal agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It administers HIV/AIDS prevention programs including the HIV Prevention Community Planning process, among other programs. It also monitors and reports infectious diseases, administers AIDS surveillance grants and publishes epidemiological reports such as the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report.
CDE California Department of Education
CELIAC DISEASE A syndrome resulting from intestinal sensitivity to gluten, a protein substance of wheat flour especially and of other grains.
CELLULOSE An indigestible polysaccharide made of many glucose molecules.
CERVIX The narrow, bottom part of the uterus which connects the uterus to the vagina
CFR Code of Federal Regulation
CHAC California HIV Advocacy Coalition. An umbrella advocacy organization for AIDS service organizations, government agencies and individuals with AIDS.
CHEAC County Health Executive Association of California
CHEILOSIS Cracks in the corners of the mouth, due primarily to a deficiency of riboflavin in the diet.
CHHS Commission on Hiv Health Services
CHIPTS Center for HIV Identification, Prevention and Treatment Services
CHOLESTEROL A fat like substance found only in animal products; important in many body functions but also implicated in heart disease. One of the sterols.
CHOLINE A substance that prevents the development of a fatty liver; frequently considered one of the B-complex vitamins.
CHPG California HIV Planning Group Formed by the California Office of AIDS (OA) by merging the CCWG and the CPWG (Comprehensive Care Working Group and Community Prevention Working Group) at the end of 1999, the CHPG advises the OA on a wide variety of planning and policy issues.
CHRONIC A disease or health condition that lasts for a long period of time, e.g. chronic hepatitis B.
occurring over a long period of time, either continuously or intermittently, used to describe ongoing exposures and effects that develop only after a long exposure
CHRONIC CARRIER Person who remains infected with a disease agent and therefore may be able to pass the disease agent to persons they come into contact with. Chronic carriers may or may not exhibit disease symptoms.
CHYLOMICRON A very small emulsified lipoprotein that transports fat in the blood.
CMP Case Management Program. A designation used by the State of California for funded programs.
COB Close of Business
COBALAMIN Scientific name for B12.
COBRA Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985. Among other policies, COBRA governs the continuation of insurance following termination of employment.
COENZYME A component of an enzyme system that facilitates the working of the enzyme.
COLA Cost-of-living adjustment.
COLLABORATION Joint efforts to achieve common purposes by sharing resources, responsibilities, and risks across agency lines.
COLLAGEN Principal protein of connective tissue.
COLOSTRUM Yellowish fluid produced in the first few days of lactation that precedes breast milk.
COMBINATION VACCINE Two or more vaccines administered in a single injection in order to reduce the number of shots given, e.g. MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine.
COMMUNITY A place, or a class of people having something in common that may transcend geography.
COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT Is both a "process" and an "outcome":
  • A process that builds the capacity of a neighborhood- or population-to set priorities and control resources essential for increasing self-determination.
  • The outcome is increased access to and control over resources-including organizational resources by local residents.

COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING The process of determining the organization and delivery of HIV services; strategy used by a planning body to improve decision making about services and maintain a continuum of care for PLWH
COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGIES A multi-faceted, holistic-not categorical- approach to solutions.
CONCENTRATION the amount of chemical in the body compared with the body size
CONFERENCE COMMITTEE A conference committee is typically created when legislation passed by one House of Congress is significantly different from the legislation passed by other House. In the reauthorization of the CARE Act in 2000, the version of the CARE Act passed by the House of Representatives was significantly different from the version passed by the Senate. Although these differences would have in most circumstances caused a conference committee to be created, differences were resolved without a conference committee.
CONFIDENTIAL HIV TESTING Testing a person for HIV where his or her name is known or given; specimens are marked with a code number, but can be linked to a name. Positive confidential HIV tests are reportable.
CONFOUNDING FACTORS are variables other than those being tested which can affect the incidence or degree of a parameter being measured
CONJUGATE VACCINE The joining together of two compounds (usually a protein and a polysaccharide) to increase a vaccine's effectiveness.
CONSORTIUM (HIV CARE CONSORTIUM) A regional or statewide planning entity established by many State grantees under Title II of the CARE Act to plan and sometimes administer Title II services; an association of health care and support service providers that develops and delivers services for PLWH under Title II of the CARE Act
CONTAMINANT a substance that is present in an environment where it does not belong or is present at levels that might cause adverse health effects
CONTROL GROUP a group of experimental subjects which are not exposed to a chemical or treatment being investigated so that they can be compared to experimental groups which are exposed to the chemical or treatment
CPG A regional or statewide planning entity established by many state grantees under Title II of the CARE Act to plan and sometimes administer Title II services; an association of health care and support service providers that develops and delivers services for PLWH under Title II of the CARE Act
CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CPWG California Prevention Working Group. A CPG created by the State of California. The CPWG merged into the CHPG in 2000.
CQI Continuous Quality Improvement
CRAS Community Risk Assessment Survey
CRC Community Resource Center (for referrals)
CSAP Center for Substance Abuse Prevention
CSAT Center for Sunstance Abuse Treatment
CSW Commericial Sex Worker
CTRPN Counseling, Testing, Referral and Partner Notification
CTS Confidential Testing Site
CUMULATIVE AIDS RATE The cumulative number of persons reported with AIDS during a specified period divided by the total population at the midpoint of that same period.

Example: Cumulative number of AIDS cases reported in 1999- 2001 ÷ 2000 LA county population (x 100,000).

CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE the summation of exposures of an organism to a chemical over a period of time
DCA1 test1
DCA2 test2
DCFS Department of Children and Family Services
DDD Date, Design and Development
DEGRADATION a chemical alteration to a pesticide; chemical or biological breakdown of a complex compound into simpler compounds
DEHYDRATION Excessive loss of water from the body.
DERMAL of the skin: through or by the skin
DEXTRIN Any of the various small soluble polysaccharides found in the leaves of starch forming plants and in the human alimentary canal as a product of starch digestion.
DHHS Department of Health and Human Services
DHS Department of Health Services
DHS/OA Department of Health Services/Office of AIDS
DIABETES MELLITUS A metabolic disorder charcterized by excess blood sugar and urine sugar.
DIET The food and beverages a person eats and drinks.
DIGESTION The breakdown of ingested foods into particles of a size and chemical composition that the body can absorb.
DIGLYCERIDE A lipid containing glycerol and two fatty acids.
DIPHTHERIA Can cause a thick covering in the back of the throat which may cause difficulty breathing. It may also lead to suffocation, paralysis, and heart failure. (pink book chapter on diphtheria) (view photo)
DISACCHARIDE A sugar made of two chemically combined monosaccharides, or simple sugars.
DISCHARGE A drip or flow from the vagina (females) or urethra (males)
DISCRETIONARY KCALORIE ALLOWANCE The amount of kcals available to meet energy needs after a person has consumed enough nutrient dense foods to meet all nutrients needs for the day.
DIURETICS A substance that stimulates urination.
DIVERSITY A range of characteristics around which people differ, such as race, language, class, culture, age, gender, sexual orientation, physical and mental ability/disability.
DIVERTICULOSIS A condition in which the wall of the large intestine weakens and balloons out, forming pouches where fecal matter can be entrapped and cause an infection known as diverticulitis.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid. A molecule that is the basis of heredity.
DOC Department of Corrections
DOE Department of Education.
DOSE the amount of the chemical that gets into an organism
DOSE RESPONSE a quantitative relationship between the dose of a chemical and the degree and/or severity of an effect caused by the chemical
DPH Department of Public Health
DPSS Department of Public Social Services
DRUG RESISTANCE Reduction in a pathogen’s sensitivity to the effects of a particular drug or an increase in the ability of the pathogen to resist the action of a drug. Resistance is thought to result mainly from genetic mutation. In HIV, mutations can change the structure of viral enzymes and proteins so that an antiretroviral agent can no longer interact with the protein to block viral replication.
DSS Division of Service Systems The entity within HRSA's HIV/AIDS Bureau responsible for administering Title I and Title II of the CARE Act, including AIDS Drug Assistance Program.
DTC Drug Treatment Center
ECTOPIC (TUBAL) PREGNANCY A pregnancy which occurs outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tubes. Ectopic pregnancies can be life- threatening to the mother and the fetus.
EDEMA The presence of an abnormally high amount of fluid in the tisues.
EFFICACY A measure used to describe how good a vaccine is at preventing the targeted disease.
EIA Enzyme Immunoassay
EIP Early Intervention Program
EIS Early Intervention Services.

Applied in the outpatient setting. Assures of a continuum of care, which includes (1) identifying persons at risk for HIV infection and offering to them counseling and testing services, and (2) providing lifelong comprehensive primary care for those living with HIV/AIDS.

ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay): The most common test used to detect the presence of HIV antibodies in the blood, which are indicative of ongoing HIV infection. A positive ELISA test result must be confirmed by another test called a Western Blot.
EMA Eligible Metropolitan Area. The geographic area eligible to receive Title 1 CARE Act funds. The Census Bureau defines the boundaries of the metropolitan area while AIDS cases reported to the CDC determines eligibility. Some EMAs include just one city and others are composed of several cities and/or counties; some EMAs extend over more than one state.
EMPTY-KCALORIE FOODS Term used to denote foods that contain high kcals, but low amounts of protein, vitamins and minerals.
EMSA Eligible Metropolitan Statistical Area
EMULSIFIER A substance that promotes the mixing of foods, such as oil and water in a salad dressing.
ENERGY The capacity to do work. The energy in food is chemical energy. The body can convert this chemical energy into mechanical, electrical or heat energy.
ENRICHMENT The addition of nutrients to food, often to resore what has been lost in processing.
ENZYME A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the cell.
EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
EPI Epidemiology
EPIDEMIC The occurrence of disease within a specific geographical area or population that is in excess of what is normally expected.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES Studies of how disease is distributed in populations and of the factors that influence or determine this distribution.
EPIDEMIOLOGY the study of the distribution and causes of disease in human population. The three main goals of epidemiology are to describe disease patterns in human populations, identify the causes of diseases, and provide data essential for the management, evaluation and planning of services for the prevention, control and treatment of disease.
The study of the factors that contribute to the occurrence of a disease in a population.
EPIDIDYMIS The squiggly tubes located behind the testicles where sperm are stored until ejaculation.
EPIDIDYMITIS Infection of the epididymis, usually caused by untreated chlamydia or gonorrhea. Symptoms include pain in the scrotum, tenderness, swelling of the testicles, and fever.
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID Any of the nine amino acids that the human body cannot manufacture and that must be supplied by the diet, as they are necessary for growth and maintenance.
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID A fatty acid that the human body cannot manufacture and that must be supplied by the dietas it is necessary for groeth and maintenance.
EVALUATION Includes qualitative and quantitative activities that offer an independent, impartial assessment about what changes actually occurred and the extent to which agreed- upon outcomes were achieved. It provides judgments about the process by which those results were obtained.
EXPOSURE contact with a substance by swallowing, breathing, or touching the skin or eyes [see Routes of Exposure]. Exposure may be short-term [acute exposure] or long-term [chronic exposure].
Contact with a factor that is suspeted to influence the risk of a person developing a particular disease
EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT the process of finding out how people come into contact with a hazardous substance, including how much, how often, and for how long they are in contact with the substance.
FALLOPIAN TUBES The two tubes which carry from the ovaries to the uterus
FAT An organic compound whose molecules contain glycerol and fatty acids; fat insulates the body, protects organs, carries fat soluble vitamins, is a constituent of cell membranes, and adds flavor to foods.
FATTY ACID A simple lipid containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; a constituent of fat.
FAVA BEAN Large green meaty bean sold fresh in the pod. Smaller white or tan fava beans are dried or canned and cannot be used interchangeably with the fresh beans. Common in Middle Eastern and Italian cooking. Also known as broad bean, horse bean, and Windsor bean.
FENNEL Light green plant with slightly bulbous end and stalks with feathery dark green leaves; somewhat like celery. Used like a root vegetable. Delicate licorice or anise flavor.
FENUGREEK Tan seeds of the fenugreek plant, with the flavor similar to artificial maple flavoring. Essential in the preparation of Asian Indian spice mixtures.
FI Fiscal Intermediary
FIDU Female injection drug user
FILIBUSTER AND FILIBUSTER PROOF Filibuster is a little used Senate device to slow down and (or) defeat a piece of legislation. Here, a Senator begins speaking on the Senate floor and never relinquishes his time to any other Senator or business. The Senator must remain in the Senate speakers’ well and must continue to speak throughout the process. This device is avoided where a bill or legislation already enjoys the support of a minimum 61 Senators.
FNP Family Nurse Practitioner
FOOD GROUP PLANS Diet-planning tools that sort foods into groups based on nutrient content and specify the amounts of foods that people should eat from each group.
FOODS Products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissues.
FY Fiscal Year. See also Budget Year
GAI CHOY Includes several types of mustard family plants grown for their greens. Dark green to reddish brown leaves are steamed, boiled or stir-fried. Also known as Chinese green Mustard or dai gai choy.
GALACTOSE A six carbon monosaccharide, one of the two that make up lactose, or milk sugar.
GAO General Accounting Office
GENE A unit of heredity or a region of DNA or RNA that controls a discrete hereditary characteristic.
GENETIC CODE The universal language in which genetic instructions are written in all living things.
GENOME The totality of genetic information belonging to an organism, the complete set of genes. The human genome is composed of three billion bases of DNA, while the HIV genome is approximately 10,000 bases of RNA.
GENOTYPE The genetic constitution (gene type) of an organism, as contrasted with the physical manifestation (phenotype) that the genes produce.
GENOTYPING The action to determine the genetic constitution of an individual by sequencing the genetic code. In HIV, a genotyping assay is performed in order to establish what the sequence is and what mutations are present, which may be associated with the drug resistance.
GHPP Genetically Handicapped Person Program
GLAD Greater Los Angeles Council on Deafness
GLI Group Level Interventions
GLUCOSE A six carbon monosaccharide found in sucrose, honey, and many fruits and vegeatbles; the major carbohydrate found in the body.
GOALS Broad directional targets to carry out the purpose; the end result.
GRANTEE The recipient of state or federal funds responsible for administering the funds.
GROUNDWATER water which is located in zones below the soil surface. Wells and springs can be fed by groundwater
GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (GBS): A rare neurological disease characterized by loss of reflexes and temporary paralysis. Symptoms include weakness, numbness, tingling and increased sensitivity that spreads over the body. Muscle paralysis starts in the feet and legs and moves upwards to the arms and hands. Sometimes paralysis can result in the respiratory muscles causing breathing difficulties. Symptoms usually appear over the course of one day and may continue to progress for 3 or 4 days up to 3 or 4 weeks. Recovery begins within 2-4 weeks after the progression stops. While most patients recover, approximately 15%-20% experience persistent symptoms. GBS is fatal in 5% of cases.
HAB HIV/AIDS Bureau. The entity within HRSA responsible for administering the CARE Act.
HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B Abbreviated as Hib. Is a cause of meningitis that can result in hearing loss, seizures, or mental retardation. (pink book chapter on Hib) (view photo)
HARRT (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy): Aggressive anti-HIV treatment usually including a combination of protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors whose purpose is to reduce viral load to undetectable levels.
HAZARD the potential that the use of a compound could result in a toxic effect
HCBC Home and Community Based Care. A model of case management services funded by the State of California. See also CMP.
HEALTH INVESTIGATION the collection and evaluation of information about the health of community residents. This information is used to describe or count the occurrence of a disease, symptom, or clinical measure and to evaluate the possible association between the occurrence and exposure to hazardous substances.
HEART OF PALM White or light green interior of the palm tree, especially popular in the Philippines. Available canned.
HEME A complex iron containing compound that is a component of hemoglobin.
HEPATITIS Hepatitis A & B infections cause loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin), liver failure, and death. Hepatitis B can also lead to liver cancer. A blood test is used to tell which type of hepatitis a person has. (pink book chapters on hep A and hep B) (view photos)
HERD IMMUNITY Having a large percentage of the population vaccinated in order to prevent the spread of certain infectious diseases. Even individuals not vaccinated (such as newborns and those with chronic illnesses) are offered some protection because the disease has little opportunity to spread within the community.
HERPES ZOSTER A disease characterized by painful skin lesions that occur mainly on the trunk (back and stomach) of the body but which can also develop on the face and in the mouth. Complications include headache, vomiting, fever and meningitis. Recovery may take up to 5 weeks. Herpes Zoster is caused by the same virus that is responsible for chickenpox. Most people are exposed to this virus during childhood. After the primary infection (chickenpox), the virus becomes dormant, or inactivated. In some people the virus reactivates years, or even decades, later and causes herpes zoster. Also known as the shingles.
HERR Health Education Risk Reduction
HFCA Health Care Financing Administration.
HICCP Health Insurance Continuum of Coverage Program
HICP Health Insurance Continuation Program
HIPP Health Insurance Payment Premium
HIRS HIV Information Resources System
HITS HIV/AIDS Interface Technology System
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV/EIS (HIV Early Intervention Services/Primary Care): Applied in the outpatient setting. Assures a continuum of care which includes (1) identifying persons at risk for HIV infection and offering to them counseling and testing services, and (2)providing lifelong comprehensive primary care for those living with HIV/AIDS The Health Resources and Services Administration is the agency of the Department of Health and Human Services that administers all components of the Ryan White CARE Act.
HIVES The eruption of red marks on the skin that are usually accompanied by itching. This condition can be caused by an allergy (e.g. to food or drugs), stress, infection or physical agents (e.g. heat or cold). Also known as uticaria.
HMO Health Maintenance Organization
HOLD (“PUT A HOLD ON LEGISLATION”) Holds are generally a prerogative of all Senators. Once a secret action and noted Senate tradition, it is now sometimes publicized. However, the Majority Leader may not honor it in all instances. A Senator deciding to prevent a piece of legislation from being considered can place a hold on it and theoretically prevent any legislation or vote on it until the hold is lifted. Such a hold can sometimes be indefinite where it is coordinated such that when one Senator’s hold is removed, another Senator can attach a new one in its place.
HOP Homeless Outreach Program. Los Angeles County CBO.
HOPWA Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS. A federal program designed to support housing and related services for people with HIV and their families. The City of Los Angeles is the grantee for HOPWA funds to be used in the County of Los Angeles.
HPI Health Promotion Institute. Los Angeles County CBO
HPV Human Papilloma Virus
HRSA The Health Resources and Services Administration is the agency of the Department of Health and Human Services that administers all components of the Ryan White CARE Act.
HTPP HIV Transmission Prevention Project
HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS More than 100 types of HPV exist; more than 30 types can infect the genital area. Genital HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States; an estimated 6.2 million persons are newly infected every year. Although the majority of infections cause no clinical symptoms and are self-limited, persistent infection with high-risk types can cause cervical cancer in women. HPV infection also is the cause of genital warts and is associated with other genital and anal cancers.
HYPERGLYCEMIA A high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
HYPERSENSITIVITY A condition in which the body has an exaggerated immune response to a substance, e.g. food or drug. Also known as an allergy.
HYPOGLYCEMIA A low level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
ICF Intermediate Care Facility
IDU Injection Drug User
IGA Intergovernmental Agreement
IHMC In-Home Medical Care
IHSS In-Home Support Service
ILI Individual Level Interventions
IMMUNE GLOBULIN A protein found in the blood that fights infection. Also known as gamma globulin.
IMMUNE RESPONSE Collective and coordinated response by the molecules and cells of the immune system that result in the elimination of naturally acquired disease-causing agents. This response also can be triggered by vaccination leading to immune protection against specific diseases.
IMMUNE SYSTEM Tissues, cells, and molecules found throughout the body that work together in a coordinated fashion to eliminate and prevent infections.
IMMUNITY Protection against a disease. There are two types of immunity: active and passive. Active immunity is protection that is produced by the person's own immune system; this type of immunity is usually permanent. Passive immunity is protection by products produced by an animal or human and transferred to another human, usually by injection. Passive immunity often provides effective protection, but this protection wanes (disappears) over time, usually a few weeks or months.
IMMUNIZATION The process by which a person or animal becomes protected against a disease. This term is often used interchangeably with vaccination or inoculation.
IMMUNOGENICITY The ability to produce a detectable immune response.
IMMUNOSUPPRESSED When the immune system is unable to protect the body from disease. This condition can be caused by disease (like HIV infection or cancer) or by certain drugs (like those used in chemotherapy). Also known as immunocompromised.
INACTIVATED VACCINE A vaccine made from viruses and bacteria that have been killed through physical or chemical processes; these killed organisms cannot cause disease. Inactivated vaccines always require multiple doses.
INCIDENCE The number of new disease cases reported in a population over a certain period of time.
The number of new cases of a disease that occur during a specified time period.
the number of new cases of a disease that occur in a defined population during a specified period of time
INCIDENCE RATE The number of new cases of a disease per population per specified time period often expressed per 100,000 population.
INCOMPLETE PROTEIN A protein lacking or deficient in one or more of the essential amino acids.
INDICATOR/BENCHMARK A measure, for which data is available, that helps quantify the achievement of a result.
INFECTIOUS Able to be passed from one person to another
INFERTILITY Inability to have children
INFLUENZA Highly contagious viral infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. Commonly known as the flu, this seasonal disease can be fatal to the aged, immunocompromised, and infants. (pink book chapter on influenza) (view photo)
INORGANIC Describes a substance that does not contain carbon.
substances or compounds that do not contain carbon and are generally not derived from plants and animals, such as minerals, salts, and metals
IRISH MOSS A gelatinous seaweed extract added to milk or rum as a beverage in the Caribbean.
ITP Invitation to Participate
IV Intravenous
IVDU Intravenous Drug User
J2EE Java 2 Enterprise
JABOTICABA Brazilian shrub or small tree with 1/2 to 1 1/2 inch fruit clustered like grapes. Gelatinous pulp is mild and sweet.
JCAHCO Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations
JOULE A unit of energy preferred by some professionals instead of the heat energy measurements of the calorie system for calculating fod energy. Sometimes reffered to as "kilojoule".
KABB Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Behaviors — used in outcome measurement of HIV programs
KAMIS Sour,cucumber-like vegetable native to the Philippines. Used to achieve a sour, cool flavor in Filipino cooking.
KARNOFSKY PERFORMANCE STATUS SCALE Scale that measures physical function (activities of daily living). The Karnofsky scale is often used to assess eligibility for in-home or other supportive services.
KCALORIE (ENERGY) CONTROL Management of food energy intake.
KDMC King Drew Medical Center (formerly Martin Luther King, Jr./Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science Medical Center).
KERATINIZATION Formation of a protein called keratin, which, in vitamin A deficiency, occurs instead of mucus formation; leads to a drying and hardening of epithelial tissue.
KILOCALORIE One thousdand calories, or the energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree celsius. It is the preferred unit of measurement of food energy. A kilocalorie is referred to as just "calorie" on most alln food labels.
KS Kaposi's Sarcoma, a form of cancer associated with HIV disease.
LA CADA Los Angeles Centers for Alcohol and Drug Abuse (CBO)
LACTASE A digestive enzyme produced by the small intestine that breaks down the lactose
LACTATION Milk production/secretion.
LACTOSE A disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose and found in milk.
LAFAN Los Angeles Family AIDS Network. LAFAN is a CARE Act Title IV grantee.
LAO Legislative Analyst's Office. The LAO provides objective analysis of legislation and policy options for the State of California.
LCSW Licensed Clinical Social Worker
LEAD (PB) a heavy metal that is hazardous to health if breathed or swallowed
LEAD AGENCY The agency within a Title II consortium responsible for contract administration; also called a fiscal agent.
LEADERSHIP(HOUSE OF REP.) Republican House Congressional leaders, who control House schedules, sometime chair the various committees and manage its overall legislative process. Dennis Hastert (R- Illinois) is the current House Speaker while Minority Leader Richard Gephardt (D-Missouri) is his Democratic counterpart.
LEADERSHIP(SENATE) Republican Senate Congressional leaders, who control Senate schedules, sometime chair the various committees and manage its overall legislative process. Majority Leader is currently Trent Lott (R-Mississippi). The Democratic Senate Minority Leader is Thomas Daschle (D-South Dakota).
LEGUMES Plants of the bean and pea family, with seeds that are rich in protein compared to other plant derived foods.
LHJ Local Health Jurisdiction
LIG Local Implementation Group. See CPG
LITCHI Small Chinese fruit with translucent white flesh and a thin brown hull and single pit. The flavor is grape-like but less sweet. Available fresh or canned. Dried litchis, also called litchi nuts, have a different flavor and texture. Also known as lychee.
LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINE Vaccine in which a live virus or bacteria is weakened through chemical or physical processes in order to produce an immune response without causing the severe effects of the disease. Measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, polio, and yellow fever are live attenuated vaccines.
LOI Letter of Intent
LVN Licensed Vocational Nurse
MACROCYTIC ANEMIA A forma of anemia caused by the presence of abnormally large blood cells.
MAI Minority AIDS Initiative. The Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) took leadership in 1998 to create the CBC Initiative, now known as the Minority AIDS Initiative, a source of funding for HIV/AIDS care and prevention services to communities of color.
MAINTENANCE OF EFFORT Requirement of the CARE Act Title I and II to maintain expenditures for HIV-related services and activities at a level equal to that of the preceding year.
MALNUTRITION A poor state of health resulting from a lack, excess, or imbalance of the nutrients needed by the body.
MANGO Fruit native to India, yellow and red when ripe, averaging one pound in weight. The flesh is pale and sour when the fruit is unripe, bright orange and very sweet when ripe. Used unripe for pickles and chutneys, ripe as fresh fruit.
MCWP Medi-Cal Waiver Program. A Medi-Cal waiver is an agreement to allow federal Medicare funds to be used to support services not always supported by Medicare. Applicants are generally required to demonstrate cost neutrality or cost effectiveness to secure a waiver.
MEASLES Causes a rash, fever, cough, and can lead to pneumonia, brain damage, hearing loss, and death. (pink book chapter on measles) (view photo)
MERCURY (HG) a heavy metal that can accumulate in the environment and is highly toxic if breathed or swallowed
MFT Marriage and Family Therapist (formerly MFCC), a certification given by the State of California.
MGA Master Grant Award. A mechanism used by the State of California to allocate funds to local health jurisdictions.
MICRS Medically Indigent Care Reporting System
MISSION A brief, clear statement of purpose; tells "why" the organization exists.
MLB Multicultural Liaison Board. Convened and supported by the State of California Office of AIDS, the MLB reviews materials for cultural appropriateness and likely effectiveness and advises the OA.
MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. A publication of the CDC. The first cases of what we now know as AIDS were reported in the MMWR on June 5, 1981.
MOA Memorandum of Agreement
MODERATION (DIETARY) Providing enough but not too much of a substance.
MOE See Maintenance of Effort
MOLDS a group of plant-like organisms (a type of fungus) that require only moisture and a nutrient source to grow
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
MSM Men who have Sex with Men. MSM defines individual by behavior, and is inclusive of gay and bisexual men, as well as those men who have sex with other men but do not identify themselves as gay or bisexual.
MSMW Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women. See also MSM.
MTU Mobile Testing Unit
MUCOUS MEMBRANE The moist lining which covers many areas inside the body such as the mouth, vagina, and anus
MUMPS Causes fever and swollen, painful glands under the jaw. It can lead to swelling of the brain and hearing loss. (pink book chapter on mumps) (view photo)
MUTATION A process by which a gene undergoes a structural change. For example, a genetically different form of HIV may have different growth properties, or be less susceptible to a drug.
NANCE Small, yellow tropical fruit similar to cherries with a slightly tart flavor. Two varieties are available.
NAPWA The National Association of People with AIDS. It represents the health public policy, HIV-treatment and prevention issues of people living with HIV disease.
NASTAD The National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors represents the state AIDS Directors on legislative, administrative, policy, budget, and appropriation issues.
NEEDS ASSESSMENT A systematic process to determine the service needs of a defined population; a definition of the extent of need, available services, and service gaps by population and geographic area.
NEGATIVE NITROGEN BALANCE Nitrogen output exceeds nitrogen intake.
NEP Needle Exchange Program
NETWORK A loose-knit group of interconnecting individuals or organizations exchanging information for mutual benefit.
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NIAID National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Disease
NIDA National Institutes on Drug Abuse
NIH (The National Institutes of Health). The 23 individual institutes that collectively provide the largest source of federally biomedical and behavioral research. Includes, among others, the Office of AIDS Research, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute of Allergic and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH).
NIJ National Institute of Justice
NIMH National Institute of Mental Health
NLM National Library of Medicine
NMAC The National Minority AIDS Council provides technical assistance to community-based minority providers, public policy support and sponsors the annual US conference on AIDS.
NNAAPC National Native American AIDS Prevention Center
NONNUTRIENTS Compounds in foods that do not fit within the six classes of nutrients (water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals).
NORA (National Organizations Responding to AIDS). About 150 organizations- AIDS specific and non-AIDS specific-who advocate at the national level on AIDS policy and appropriations.
NP Nurse Practitioner
NUTRIENT DENSITY A measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides. The more nutrients and the fewer kcalories, the higher the nutrient density.
NUTRIENTS Nourishing substances in food that can be digested, absorbed, and metabolized by the body; needed for growth, maintenance and reproduction.
NUTRITION 1. The sum of the processes by which an organism obtains, assimilates, and utilizes food. 2. The scientific study of these processes.
OA Office of AIDS. The entity within the California Department of Health Services responsible for planning and administration for AIDS services within the state.
OAPP Office of AIDS Programs and Policy. The entity within the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health responsible for planning and administration for AIDS services within Los Angeles County. OAPP is the grantee for CARE Title I and CDC funding in Los Angeles County.
OASIS Outpatient AIDS Services Integrated System (AIDS Clinic at King Drew Medical Center).
OBESITY Condition of being 30 percent above one's ideal body weight.
OBJECTIVES Specific measurable actions by which the goal is achieved, consistent with the purpose, and is time-limited.
OKRA Small green torpedo shaped pod with angular sides. A tropical African plant valued for the carbohydrates in it that are sticky and mucilangenous. It is used as a vegetable and to thicken soups and stews.
OLEIC ACID A monosaturated fatty acid.
OLL Office of Legislative Liaison
OMB (Office of Management and Budget). Office within the Federal executive branch, which prepares the President’s annual budget, develops the Federal government’s fiscal program, oversees administration of the budget, and reviews government regulation.
OMH The Office of Minority is a component of the Office of the Secretary (OS) within the Department of Health and Human Services. It attempts to provide support to and focus on the many health issues that disproportionately impact communities of color.
ONAP Office of National AIDS Policy. Agency created (within the White House), to provide high-level focus on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION An infection or cancer that occurs especially or exclusively in persons with weak immune systems due to AIDS, cancer or immunosuppresive drugs such as corticosteroids or chemotherapy. Also more loosely termed Opportunistic Infection (OI)
ORAL SEX Occurs when one person puts his or her mouth on another person's genitals
ORGANIC A substance or molecule that contains a carbon-carbon or a carbon-hydrogen bond. In agriculture the terms has come to mean growing crops and livestock according to organic standards set forth by the federal or state governments.
carbon containing compounds including those existing in or derived from plants and animals, also including man-made carbon based compounds
OUTCOME OR RESULT A desired end result and/or change stated in measurable, attainable terms. A condition of well-being for children, families, or communities.
OVARIES The female reproductive glands which release eggs and produce hormones
PACHA Preidential Advisory Commission on HIV/AIDS
PALMITIC ACID A saturated fatty acid.
PANDEMIC An epidemic occurring over a very large area.
PARTS PER BILLION (PPB) Parts per billion is a measure of the concentration of a compound. 1 ppb is equal to one microgram per kilogram. An example of this would be one ppb is equal to one second in thirty-two years
PARTS PER MILLION (PPM) Parts per million is a measure of concentration of a compound. 1 ppm is equal to one mg per kg. An example of this would be one ppm is equal to one minute in two years
PATHOGENS Organisms, e.g. bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, that cause disease.
PAWPAW Light orange fruit that tastes like a cross between a banana and a melon. Native to the Americas, it is approximately 6 inches long.
PBM Pharmacy Benefits Manager. Usually a for-profit corporation that ensures access to prescription medicines. The PBM for the AIDS Drug Assistance Program is PMDC.
PCM Prevention Case Management
PCP Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia
PCRS Partner Counseling and Referral Service
PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE (PID) Infection of the female upper reproductive organs (fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus), which can cause scarring and inflammation. Symptoms may include lower stomach pain, fever, chills, abnormal vaginal discharge, unusual bleeding or spotting, and pain during periods. PID can lead to infertility, ectopic or tubal pregnancies, and chronic pelvic pain.
PEMS Prevention Evaluation Monitoring System
PEP Post Exposure Prophylaxis
PERFORMANCE MEASURE A measure of the effectiveness of agency or program service delivery.
PERTUSSIS Also known as whooping cough. Can cause coughing and choking that makes it hard to breathe. The cough can last for many weeks and result in brain damage or death, especially in infants under 1 year of age. (pink book chapter on pertussis) (view photo)
PESTICIDE a substance or mixture of substances used to prevent, destroy, or repel a pest
PHENOTYPING A test that measures some aspect of an organism’s functions, for example, the amount of a certain drug needed to inhibit the growth of HIV in a test-tube culture.
PHIPP Prevention for HIV Infected Persons Project
PHYTOCHEMICAL Nonnutrient compounds found in plant derived foods that have biological activity in the body.
PITANGA Small, bright red, ribbed fruit of a shrub or small tree native to northeastern South America; found also in the Caribbean and Florida. Thin skin with orange flesh "melts" in the mouth. Sweet with a slightly bitter bite.
PLANNING The process through which an organized scheme to get something done is developed; decisions that set a course of action.
PLANNING COUNCIL A body appointed or established in an EMA which plans the delivery of HIV care services in the EMA and establishes priorities for the use of Title I CARE Act funds.
PLWA Person(s) Living with AIDS.
PLWH Persons(s) Living with HIV
PMDC Professional Management Development Corporation. A corporation contracted to manage the California AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP).
PNEUMOCOCCAL DISEASE Bacterial disease that causes pneumonia, bacteremia, sinusitus, meningitis, and severe ear infections. The disease is most common in children less than 2 years of age and adults over 40 years of age, and occurs more often in males than females at all ages. (pink book chapter on pneumococcal disease) (view photo)
POCA Plan of Corrective Action
POLICY A guideline statement.
POLIO A sometimes crippling disease that can also cause paralysis and death. (pink book chapter on polio) (view photo)
POLYSACCHARIDE VACCINE Vaccines that are composed of long chains of sugar molecules that resemble the surface of certain types of bacteria. Polysaccharide vaccines are available for pneumococcal disease and meningococcal disease.
POPA People of Positive AIDS. POPA is a coalition of members of the California HIV Planning Group.
PPC Prevention Planning Committee
PPP Public Private Partnership. A PPP is a contractual between the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services and non-profit health care providers to support health care to indigent clients.
PRESERVATIVE An additive that protects vaccine against contamination or spoilage.
PREVALENCE The number of disease cases (new and existing) within a population over a given period of time.
The total number of persons with a specific disease or condition at a given time.
the number of existing disease cases in a defined population during a specified period of time
PREVALENCE RATE The proportion of a population living at a given time with a condition or disease (compared to the incidence rate, which refers to new cases).
PRINCIPLES Basic standards or set of beliefs that shape behavior or influence choices.
PRIORITY SETTING The process used by a planning council or consortium to establish numerical priorities among service categories, to ensure consistency with locally identified needs, and to address how best to meet each priority
PROPHYLAXIS Treatment to prevent the onset of a particular disease (primary prophylaxis) or recurrence of symptoms in an existing infection that has been brought under control (secondary prophylaxis or maintenance therapy).
PROTEASE An enzyme that triggers the breakdown of proteins. HIV’s protease enzyme breaks apart long strands of viral protein into the separate proteins constituting the viral core and the enzymes it contains. HIV protease acts as new virus particles are budding off a cell membrane.
PROTEASE INHIBITOR A drug that binds to HIV protease and blocks it from working, thus preventing the production of new functional viral particles.
PROVITAMIN Precursors to vitamins that can be converted into vitamins in the body (e.g. beta-carotene can be converted into Vitamin A in the body).
PVO Private Voluntary Organization
PWA Person With AIDS
PWH Persons with HIV
PWP Prevention with Positives
QA Quality Assurance
QC Quality Control
QI Quality Improvement
QI GONG (chee GUNG) A Chinese system that combines movement, meditation and breathing techniques to enhance the flow of "qi" energy within the body.
QUALITY OF LIFE A person's perceived physical and mental well-being.
QUINOA Cereal native to the Andes; prepared like rice. Very high in protein.
RAC Residential AIDS Center
RADIATION ENTERITIS Inflammation of the intrestinal tissue caused by exposure to radiation.
RADIATION THERAPY The use of x-rays, gamma-rays, or atomic particles to destroy cancer cells.
RADON a colorless, naturally-occurring gas that is produced by the decay of uranium, an element almost universally present in soil and rock
RANDOMIZATION A process of choosing the members of an experimental and control group without bias.
RAS Residential AIDS Shelter
RAW SUGAR The first crop of crystals harvested during sugar processing. Raw sugar cannot be sold in the U.S. because it contains too much filth (dirt, insect fragments, etc...). Sugar sold as "raw sugar" domestically has actually gone through over half of the refining steps.
RCFCI Residential Care Facility for Chronically Ill. The Office of AIDS Programs and Policy (OAPP) maintains 7 RCFCI contracts.
RDL RDL Enterprises. A corporation contracted for meeting and logistical planning for the California Office of AIDS.
REBOUND HYPERGLYCEMIA Hyperglycemia that results from the release of counterregulatory hormones following nighttime hypoglycemia; also called the Somogyi phenomenon.
RECOMBINANT Of or resulting from new combinations of genetic material or cells; the genetic material produced when segments of DNA from different sources are joined to produce recombinant DNA.
RECTUM The end part of the large intestine where bowel movements are released from the body
The muscular terminal part of the intestine, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus.
REDUCED KCALORIE At least 25% fewer kcalories per serving than the comparison food.
REFEEDING SYNDROME A condition that sometimes develops when a severely malnourished person is aggressively fed; charachterized by electrolyte and fluid imbalance and hyperglycemia.
REFERENCE DOSE (RFD) a level of exposure that is considered acceptable or safe. Also known as the "acceptable daily intake"
REFERENCE PROTEIN A standard against which to measure the quality of other protein (e.g. albumin).
REFINED The process by which the coarse parts of a food are removed. When wheat is refined into flour, the bran, germ and husk are removed, leaving only the endosperm.
REFLEXOLOGY The technique that applies pressure or message on areas of the hands or feet. Also known as "zone therapy".
REFLUX A backward flow.
REFLUX ESOPHAGITIS Inflammation in the esophagus related to the reflux of acid stomach contents.
REGISTERED DIETITIAN A person who has completed a minimum of a bachelors degreeb from an accredited university or college, has completed approved course work and supervised practice program, has passed a national examination, and maintains registration through continuing professional education.
REGISTRATION Listing; with respect to health professionals, listing with a professional organization that requires specific course work, experience and the passing of an examination.
REGURGITATION The reflux of a small amounts of acidic gastric substances in the mouth.
RELATIVE RISK The ratio of the risk of disease in persons exposed to a risk factor compared to the risk of disease in persons not exposed to the risk factor.
RELAXIN The hormone of late pregnancy.
REMODELING In the body, the dismantling and re-formation of a structure such as bone.
RENAL Pertaining to the kidneys.
RENAL COLIC The severe stabbing pain that occurs when a kidney stone passes through a ureter.
RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY A bone disorder in patients with chronic renal failure; a consequence of increased parathyroid hormone secretion, reduced serum calcium, acidosis, and impaired Vitamin D activation by the kidneys.
RENAL THRESHOLD Blood concentration of a substance that exceeds the kidneys' capacity for reabsorption and leads to the appearance of the substance in urine.
RENIN An enzyme from the kidneys that activates angiotensin.
REPLICATION Repeating an experiment and getting the same results. The skeptical scientist, on hearing a new, exciting, finding will ask, "has it been replicated yet?" If it hasn't, the scientist will withhold judgment regarding the finding's validity.
REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS In females, the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus; in males, the penis and testicles
REQUIREMENT The lowest continuing intake of a nutrient that will maintain a specified criterion of adequacy.
RESECTION The surgical removal of a part of an organ or body structure.
RESIDUE Material left in the intestine after digestion; includes mostly dietary fiber and undigested starches and proteins.
RESISTANT STARCHES Starches that escape digestion and absorption in the intestines of healthy people.
RESISTIN (re-ZIST-in) A hormone produced by adipose cells that induces insulin resistance.
RESPIRATORY STRESS Inadequate gas exchange between the air and blood, resulting in lower oxygen and higher carbon dioxide levels.
RESPONSE the beneficial and harmful effects of a chemical
RESTING METABOLIC RATE (RMR) Similar to the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), a measure of energy use of a person at rest in a comfortable setting, but with less stringent criteria for recent food intake and physical activity. Consequently the RMR is significanly higher than the BMR.
RETICULOCYTES Immature red blood cells released into the blood by bone marrow.
RETINA The layer of light sensitive nerve cells lining the back of the inside of the eye; consists of rods and cones.
RETINOIDS Chemically related compounds with biological activity similar to that of retinol; metabolites of retinol.
RETINOL ACTIVITY EQUIVALENTS (RAE) A measure of Vitamin A activity; the amount of retinol that the body will derive from a food containing preformed retinol or its precursor beta-carotene.
RETINOL-BINDING PROTEIN (RBP) The specific protein responsible for transporting retinol.
RETROVIRUS A type of virus that, when not infecting a cell, stores its genetic information on a single-stranded RNA molecule instead of the more usual double-stranded DNA. HIV is an example of a retrovirus. After a retrovirus penetrates a cell, it constructs a DNA version of its genes using a special enzyme, reverse transcriptease. This DNA then becomes part of the cell’s genetic material.
REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE A uniquely viral enzyme that constructs DNA from an RNA template, which is an essential step in the life cycle of a retrovirus such as HIV. The RNA-based genes of HIV and other retroviruses must be converted to DNA if they are to integrate into the cellular genome.
RFA Request for Application
RFP (Request for Proposals): An open and competitive process for selecting providers of service (sometimes called RFA or Request for Application).
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS A disease of the immune system involving painful inflammation of the joints and related structures.
RHODOPSIN The visual pigment in the retinal rods of the eyes which allows one to see at night; its formation requires Vitamin A.
RIBOFLAVIN One of the B vitamins (B2); the coenzyme forms are flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).
RIBOSOMES Protein making organelles in cells; composed of RNA and protein.
RICKETS The vitamin D deficiency disease in children characterized by bone softening and deformities.
RISK the probability that something will cause injury or harm
The likelihood that an individual will experience a certain event.
RISK ASSESSMENT the evaluation of possible adverse health effects (risks) and benefits resulting from human exposure to a certain substance
RISK COMMUNICATION the exchange of information regarding possible adverse health effects (risks) and environmental concerns between public health officials and the public, media, elected officials, and other interest groups.
RISK FACTOR human characteristics or external variables associated with increased probability of an adverse health effect
A condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal. Leading risk factors for chronic disease include obesity, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, physical inactivity, and a diet high in saturated fats and low in vegetables, fruits and whole grains.
RISK REDUCTION actions that can decrease the likelihood that individuals, groups, or communities will experience disease or other health conditions
RNA Ribonucleic Acid. A family of single-stranded molecules structurally similar to DNA. In HIV, RNA is the molecule that carries the genetic information in the virus. In the process of infection, the HIV genome must be converted to DNA to successfully infect a cell.
ROTAVIRUS A group of viruses that cause diarrhea in children.
ROUTES OF EXPOSURE the ways that a toxin can enter the body. Three main routes of exposure are: inhalation (by breathing), dermal absorption (through the skin), and ingestion (by being swallowed). Toxins may have serious effects by one route, and minimal effects by another.
RTI Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor. A drug that binds to HIV reverse transcriptase and blocks it from working, thus preventing the production of new functional viral particles.
RUBELLA Also known as German measles. It is usually a mild disease in children. However, infected children can spread the disease to pregnant women. Babies born to women with rubella can have severe birth defects. (pink book chapter on rubella) (view photo)
RWCA Ryan White CARE Act - See also CARE Act
SACCHARIN An artificial sweetener that has been approved for use in the United States. In Canada, approval for use in foods and beverages is pending; currently availableonly in pharmacies and only as a tabltop seetner, not as an additive.
SALIVA Fluid produced in the mouth that helps food digestion.
SALIVARY GLANDS Exocrine glands that secrete saliva into the mouth.
SALMONELLA A bacterium that can cause food poisoning.
SALT A compound composed of an ion other than H+ and a negative ion other than OH-. An example is sodium chloride (Na+Cl- ).
SALT SENSITIVITY A characteristic of an individuals who respond to a high salt intake with an increase in blood pressure or to a low salt intake with a decrease in blood pressure.
SALVAGE THERAPY A final therapy for people who are non-responsive to or cannot tolerate other available treatments for a particular condition.
SAMHSA The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration - agency within the Department of Health and Human Services that administers state block grant funds for substance abuse and mental health services and directs service grants to community-based organizations serving individuals living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse or mental health issues.
SAMS (Self Assessment Modules): Self-assessment tools for planning councils and consortia.
SARCOPENIA (SAR-koh-PEE-nee-ah) Loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and quantity.
SATIATING Having the power to supress hunger and inhibit eating.
SATIATION (say-she-AY-shun) The feeling of satisfaction and fullness that occurs during a meal and halts eating. Satiation determines how much food is eaten during a meal.
SATIETY (sah-TIE-eh-tee) The feeling of satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal. Satiety determines how much time passes between meals.
SATURATED FAT-FREE Less than 0.5 g of saturated fat and 0.5 g of trans-fat per serving.
SATURATED FATTY ACID A fatty acid in which carbon is joined with four other atoms; i.e., all carbon atoms are bound to the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. A saturated fat is composed of triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids are saturated.
SCHIZOPHRENIA (SKITZ-oh-FREN-ee-ah) Mental illness characterized by an altered concept of reality and, in some cases, delusions and hallucinations.
SCROTUM The loose sac of skin which holds the testicles
SCSN Statewide Coordinated Statement of Need. A written statement of need for the entire State developed through a process designed to collaboratively identify significant HIV issues and maximize CARE Act program coordination. The SCSN process is convened by the Title 11 grantee, with equal responsibility and input by all programs; representatives must include all CARE Act titles and Part F managers, providers, PLWH, and public health agency(s).
SCURVY A disease characterized by bleeding gums, pain in the joints, lethargy and other problems. Caused by a deficeincy of Viatmin C (ascorbic acid).
SDI State Disability Insurance
SECONDARY DEFICIENCY A nutrient deficiency caused by something other than an inadequate intake such as a disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient.
SECRETIN (see-CREET-in) A hormone produced by cells in the duodenum wall that target the pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice.
SEGMENTATION A periodic squeezing or partitioning of the intestine at intervals along its length by its circular muscles.
SELECTIVE MENUS Menus with two or more choices in some or all menu categories.
SELENIUM A trace element.
SELF-MONITORING OF BLOOD GLUCOSE (SMBG) Home monitoring of blood glucose levels using a glucose meter.
SEMEN (CUM, EJACULATE) The milky, white fluid that contains sperm released by males during sex
SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE A membrane that allows some particles to pass through, but not others.
SEQUENCE The particular order of nucleotides in DNA, RNA or of amino acids in a protein. The sequence is a signature of identification.
SEROCONVERSION Development of detectable antibodies to HIV in the blood as a result of infection. It normally takes several weeks to several months for antibodies to the virus to develop after HIV transmission. When antibodies to HIV appear in the blood, a person will test positive in the standard ELISA test for HIV.
SEROPREVALENCE The number of persons in a population who test HIV-positive based on serology (blood serum) specimens. It is often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a rate per 100,000 persons tested.
SEROPREVALENCE REPORT A report that provides information about the percent or rate of people in specific testing groups and populations who have tested positive for HIV.
SERVICE INTEGRATION The allocation of resources by multiple providers of service from similar or different sectors to address the multiple needs of a group of people served in common.
SHA Sexual Health Assessment
SHINGLES A disease characterized by painful skin lesions that occur mainly on the trunk (back and stomach) of the body but which can also develop on the face and in the mouth. Complications include headache, vomiting, fever, and meningitis. Recovery make take up to five weeks. Shingles is caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox. Most people are exposed to this virus during childhood. After the primary infection (chickenpox), the virus becomes dormant, or inactivated. In some people, the infection reactivates years, or even decades later and causes shingles. Also known as herpes zoster.
SMALLPOX An acute, highly infectious, often fatal disease caused by a poxvirus and characterized by high fever and aches with subsequent widespread eruption of pimples that blister, produce pus, and form pockmarks. Also called variola.
SNF Skilled Nursing Facility. SNF is a licensure category administered by the State of California.
SOC Share of Cost. The payment required by individuals to receive Medi-Cal benefits. For very low-income individuals, the share of cost is zero.
SPA Service Planning Area. Los Angeles County is divided into eight SPAs of roughly equal population.
Service Planning Area.
SPNS (Special Projects of National Significance) A health services demonstration, research, and evaluation program funded under Part F of the CARE Act.
SRO Single Room Occupancy. Usually a kind of residence hotel, frequently used for temporary housing for very low-income individuals.
SSA Staff Services Analyst
SSDI Social Security Disability Insurance
STAKEHOLDERS The sum total of individuals and formal and informal networks with a vested interest in the quality of life- social, economic, physical, and spiritual-of a community, population, or neighborhood.

[Formal networks = libraries, unions, service agencies, advocacy groups; Informal networks = resident associations, block clubs, consumers]
STANDARD OF IDENTITY A list of specifications for the manufacture of certain foods that stipulates their required contents.
STAR FRUIT Small, deeply ribbed, oval fruit with thin skin shaped like a star when sliced. Green and sour when unripe, yellow and slightly sweet (though still tart) when ripe. Unripe fruit is used in Indian and Chinese dishes. Ripe fruit is eaten fresh.
STARCH A polysaccharide composed of glucose molecules; the major form of energy found in plants.
STD Sexually Transmitted Disease. Usually, STD refers to chlamydia, gonorrhea or syphilis. Less often, STD is used to include hepatitis B and/or HIV. Synonymous with VD, STI.
STEARIC ACID A saturated fatty acid.
STERILITY When a person is not able to have children
STI Sexually Transmitted Infection
SUCROSE A disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose, often called "table sugar".
SULFITES Agents used as preservatives in foods to eliminate bacteria, preserve freshness, prevent browning, and increase storage life; can cause acute asthma attacks, and even death, in people who are sensitive to them.
SUMAC Sour red Middle Eastern spice made from the ground berries of a non-toxic variety of the sumac plant.
SUNFLOWERS Native to the United States; over 60 varieties. Seeds eaten by Native Americans raw, dried, and powdered (in breads). Unopened flower head can be cooked and eaten like an artichoke. Petals are dried and used like saffron in Southwest.
SURVEILLANCE An ongoing systematic process of collecting, analyzing, and using data on specific health conditions and diseases (e.g., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance system for AIDS cases).
SURVEILLANCE REPORT A report providing information on the number of reported cases of a disease such as AIDS, nationally and for specific sub-populations.
SWEETSOP Sweet, white fleshed fruit fruit related to the cherimoya and soursop. Also known as sugar apple.
SYSTEM Organizations that are linked together in the provision of services/products (e.g. transportation system, K-college education system, child welfare). An interdependent linking of organizations that rely on each other for the exchange of resources.
SYSTEMS CHANGE A change in the way that people and institutions think and behave to affect fundamentally the types, quality, and level of resources and services available to individuals, families, and communities.
SZECHWAN PEPPER Aromatic berries with a hot flavor popular in some Chinese and Japanese dishes. Also known as fagara.
TAMARIND Tart pulp from the pod of a tamarind bean. Available in the pod, as a paste, in a brick, or as a liquid concentrate.
TANF Temporary Aid for Needy Families. A State of California program for low-income families. Formerly AFDC.
TAR Treatment Authorization Request. A TAR authorizes a treatment or therapy for Medi-Cal reimbursement.
TARGET POPULATION A population to be reached through some action or intervention; may refer to groups within specific demographic or geographic characteristics.
TARO Starchy underground vegetable similar to cassava with brown hairy skin and white grayish flesh, common to the Caribbean and Polynesia. In Hawaii the boiled, pounded tao paste called poi is a staple in the traditional diet. The large leaves are also eaten. Also known as eddo, dasheen and tannier.
TARPON Large silver fish of the herring family found off the coasts of Mexico and Central America.
TB Tuberculosis
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Can be "substantive" and/or "process-oriented." It includes a wide range of activities performed by an outside person or group, professional or non-professional, that can help a collaborative meet its objectives.

Technical assistance can fill knowledge gaps of individuals, organizations, or communities (short term) and/or improve competencies, i.e., individual skills, knowledge, values, attitudes, and orientation (longer term).
TEPARY BEANS Small high-protein bean with wrinkled skin. Grows wild in the southwest United States.
TERATOGEN An agent with the potential of causing birth defects.
a substance that causes a structural or functional birth defect
TESTICLES, TESTES (BALLS, NUTS) Male glands which produce sperm and hormones
TETANUS Causes painful muscle spasms in the neck, arms, legs, back, and abdomen. It can lead to "locking" of the jaw so the person cannot open his mouth or swallow. Tetanus can lead to death. (pink book chapter on tetanus) (view photo)
THE ADMINISTRATION Technically refers to the White House and the executive branch of government. Also commonly used by AIDS advocates to refer to the OMB (Office of Management and Budget), the National Office of AIDS Policy, and (or) the Department of Health and Human Services.
THIAMIN One of the B vitamins; B1
THIMEROSAL Thimerosal is a mercury-containing preservative that has been used in some vaccines and other products since the 1930's. There is no evidence that the low concentrations of thimerosal in vaccines have caused any harm other than minor reactions like redness or swelling at the injection site. However, in July 1999 the U.S. Public Health Service, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and vaccine manufacturers agreed that thimerosal should be reduced or eliminated from vaccines as a precautionary measure. Today, all routinely recommended childhood vaccines manufactured for the U.S. market contain either no thimerosal or only trace amounts.
THYROXINE Hormone containing iodine that is secreted by the thyroid gland.
TI Tropical plant popular in Polynesia (not related to tea). Ti leaves are used to wrap food packets, and the root is eaten and brewed as a beverage.
TILAPIA Small freshwater fish with sweet, firm, white flesh.
TLC Teens Linking Care
TOMATILLO Small, light green, tomato-like fruit common in Mexico. The flesh is slightly tart and is eaten cooked, usually in sauces and condiments. Available fresh or canned.
TOXEMIA A complication of pregnancy charachterized by high blood pressure, edema, vomiting, presence of protein in the urine, and other symptoms.
TOXIC AGENTS (TOXINS) chemical, biological or physical agents, that under certain circumstances of exposure, can cause harmful effects to living organisms. Some examples of biological agents are mold, mushrooms, poisonous plants, and reptiles; chemical agents are arsenic, asbestos, benzene, cyanide, lead, and mercury; physical agents are cold, heat, microwaves, and radiation.
TOXICOLOGY the study of the harmful effects of substances on humans or animals
TRANSFERRIN A protein compound, the form in which iron is transported in the blood.
TRANSMISSION CATEGORY A grouping of disease exposure and infection routes; in relation to HIV disease, exposure groupings include injection drug use, men who have sex with men, heterosexual contact, perinatal transmission etc.
TRIGLYCERIDE A lipid containing glycerol and three fartty acids.
TRUFFLE Black (French) or white (Italian) fungus found underground. Truffles very from the size of small marbles to as large as tennis balls and are distinctly flavored, similar to a wild mushroom. Available fresh or canned.
TRYPSIN A digestive enzyme, produced in the pancreas, that breaks down protein.
TUBERCULOSIS DISEASE Tuberculosis disease is an acute respiratory disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the United States, it is considered to be a reportable disease by law. The current treatment for tuberculosis disease is a combination of four antibiotics at the same time, for a time period of six to nine months. TB disease is both treatable and curable.
TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION TB infection, or Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI), is an infection of a person by the bacterium that causes tuberculosis disease. It is not the same thing as tuberculosis disease. Only about 5% to 10% of the people in the United States who become infected with the TB bacterium will get sick with active TB disease.
UARP University-wide AIDS Research Program. This is a program of the University of California, with research centers and projects at multiple sites.
UGLI FRUIT Citrus fruit that is a cross between a pommelo and a mandarin orange, with a very bumpy yellow-orange skin and a sweet orange like flavor. Popular in Jamaica.
ULCER A lesion of the skin or mucous membranes characterized by inflammation and damaged tissues.
ULCERATIVE COLITIS Inflammatory bowel disease that involves the colon. Inflammation affects the mucosa and submucosa.
ULTRAFILTRATION Removal of fluids and solutes from the blood by using pressure to transfer the blood across a semipermeable membrane.
UMBILICAL CORD (um-BILL-ih-cul) The ropelike structure through which the fetus's veins and arteries reach the placenta; the route of nourishment and oxygen to the fetus and the route of waste disposal from the fetus. The scar in the middle of the abdomenthat marks the former attachment of the umbilical cord is the umbilicus (um-BILL-ih-cus), commonly referred to as the "belly button".
UNDERNUTRITION Deficient of nutrients.
UNDERWEIGHT Body weight below an accepted norm by more than 10 percent.
UNSATURATED FATTY ACID A fatty acid that lacks hydrogen atoms and has at least one double bond between carbons. Includes monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. An unsaturated fat is composed of triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids are unsaturated.
UNSPECIFIED EATING DISORDERS Eating disorders that do not meet the defined criteria for specific eating disorders.
UR Utilization Review
UREA The main nitrogenous component of urine, resulting from the breakdown of amino acids.
UREA KINETIC MODELING A method of determining the adequacy of dialysis treatment by calculating urea clearance from the blood.
UREMIA A disease in which abnormal levels of urea accumulates in the blood. Also called azotemia (AZE-oh-TEE-me-ah).
UREMIC SYNDROME The cluster of symptoms associated with a GFR below 15 mL/min, including uremia, anemia, bone disease, hormonal imbalances, bleeding impairment, increased cardiovascular disease risk and reduced immunity.
URETHRA The tube in males and females which transports urine from the bladder out of the body. In males, it is also the tube which carries semen out of the body during ejaculation.
URS Uniform Reporting System. A system developed by HRSA to standardize data collected on CARE Act clients and services.
UTERUS (YOU-ter-us) The muscular organ within which the infant develops before birth.
UTERUS (WOMB) The female reproductive organ which carries the fetus during pregnancy
VACCINATION Injection of a killed or weakened infectious organism in order to prevent the disease.
VACCINE Interacts with the immune system and often produces an immune response similar to that produced by the natural infection, but does not subject the recipient to the disease and its potential complications. Produces immunologic memory similar to that acquired by having the natural disease. There are two types: live attenuated and inactivated.
VACCINE ADVERSE EVENT REPORTING SYSTEM (VAERS) A database managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration. VAERS provides a mechanism for the collection and analysis of adverse events associated with vaccines currently licensed in the United States. Reports to VAERS can be made by the vaccine manufacturer, recipient, their parent/guardian or health care provider. For more information on VAERS call (800) 822-7967.
VAGINA Canal or passage which connects the uterus to the outside of the body. The vaginal opening is directly beneath the opening of the urethra.
VAGINAL SEX Occurs when a penis is inserted into the vagina
VAGOTOMY (vay-GOT-oh-mee) Surgery that severs the vagus nerve in order to supress gastric acid secretion. This surgery may impair gastric emptying and require an additional pyloroplasty procedure to allow drainage.
VAGUS NERVE The cranial nerve that regulates hydrochloric acid secretion and peristalsis. Effects elsewhere in the body include regulation of the heart and bronchiole constriction.
VALIDITY Having the quality of being founded on fact or evidence.
VARIABLES Factors that change. A variable may depend on other variable (e.g. a child's height depends on his age), or it may be independent (e.g. a child's height does not depend on his eye color). Sometimes both variables correlate with a third variable (a child's height and eye color both depend on his genetics).
VARICELLA Also known as chickenpox. An itchy skin rash that can lead to scarring. It can also result in serious complications such as pneumonia, swelling of the brain, and possibly death. (pink book chapter on varicella) (view photo)
VARICES (Var-ih-seez) Abnormally dialated blood vessels.
VARIETY (DIET) Eating a wide selection of foods within and among the food groups.
VASOCONSTRICTOR (VAS-oh-kon-STRICK-tor) A substance that constricts or narrows the blood vessels.
VEGAN A person who eats nothing derived from an animal; the strictest type of vegetarian.
VEGETARIANS A general term used to describe people who exclude meat, poultry, fish or other animal-derived foods from their diets.
VEINS Vessels that carry blood to the heart.
VERJUICE Juice of unripe lemons used in Middle Eastern fare to give a tang to dishes.
VERY LOW SODIUM 35 mg or less per serving.
VILLI (VILL-ee, VILL-eye) Fingerlike projections from the folds of the small intestine; singular villus.
VIRAL LOAD The amount of HIV RNA per unit of blood plasma. Indicates virus concentration and reproduction rate. HIV viral load is also used as a predictor of diseased progression. It can be measured by PCR or bDNA tests and is expressed in number of copies of or equivalents to the HIV RNA genome per milliliter of plasma.
VIRAL LOAD TEST Diagnostic tools to help physicians predict HIV disease progression and evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral drugs used to treat patients with HIV infection.
VIREMIA The presence of virus in blood or blood plasma. Plasma viremia is a quantitative measurement of HIV levels similar to viral load but is accomplished by seeing how much of a patient’s plasma is required to spark an HIV infection in a laboratory cell culture.
VIRUS Germ which can enter the body and cause an infection or illness. Viruses usually cannot be cured. Some common viruses include HIV (the virus that causes AIDS), herpes simplex virus II (genital herpes), and human papillomavirus (genital warts).
VISCOUS A gel-like consistency.
VISION A statement that expresses what a group is trying to build- aspirations to be realized. It conveys an image of the future.
VITAMIN Organic substance required by the body in small amounts to perform numerous functions.
VITAMIN A All naturally occurring compounds with the biological activity of retinol, the alcohol form of vitamin A.
VITAMIN A ACTIVITY A term reffering to both the active forms of vitamin A and the precursor forms in food without distinguishing between them.
VITAMIN B COMPLEX All known water soluble vitamins except C; includes thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), pyridoxine (B6), niacin, folic acid, cobalamin (B12), pantothenic acid and biotin.
VITAMIN B12 A B vitamin charachterized by the presence of cobalt. The active forms of coenzyme B12 are methylcobalamin and deoxyadenosylcobalamin.
VITAMIN B6 A family of compounds-pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine. The primary active coenzyme form is PLP (pyridoxal phosphate).
VLDL (VERY LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN) The type of lipoprotein made primarily by liver cells to transport lipids to various tissues in the body; composed primarily of triglycerides.
VNA Visiting Nurses Association. An organization (including affiliates in many parts of California) that provides home health and attendant care.
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) organic compounds that evaporate readily into the air
VOMITING Expulsion of the contents of the stomach up through the esophagus to the mouth.
VULNERABLE PLAQUE A form of plaque, susceptible to rupture, that is lipid rich and only has only a thin fibrous barrier between the arterial lumen and the plaque's lipid core.
WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE an anthropometric measurement used to assess a person's abdominal fat.
WASABI Light green Japanese condiment from root of a plant similar to horseradish with a powerful pungency. Available fresh or powdered; geen dyed horseradish sometimes sold as wasabi.
WASTING The gradual atrophy (loss) of body tissue; associated with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) or chronic disease.
WATER BALANCE The balance between water intake and output.
WATER CHESTNUT Aquatic, walnut size tuber with fibrous brown peel and crunchy, sweet, ivory colored flesh. Available fresh or canned.
WATER INTOXICATION The rare condition in which body water contents are too high in all body fluid compartments.
WATERMELON SEEDS Seeds often eaten in Africa (called egusi, toasted, ground or pounded into meal or paste for thickening soups and stews) and in Asia (toasted as a snack; sometimes flavored or dyed red).
WAX GOURD White, oblong fruit of a vine with starchy flesh, common in Southeast Asia.
WEAN Gradually replacing breast milk with infant formula or other foods appropriate to an infants diet.
WELL WATER Water drawn from ground water by tapping into an aquifer.
WERNICKE-KORSAKOFF SYNDROME A neurological disorder typically associated with chronic alcoholism and caused by a deficiency of the B vitamin thiamin; also called alcohol-related dementia.
WESTERN BLOT A test for detecting the specific antibodies to HIV in a person’s blood. It is commonly used to verify positive ELISA tests. A Western Blot test is more reliable than the ELISA, but it is harder and more costly to perform. All positive HIV antibody tests should be confirmed with a Western Blot test.
WHEAT GLUTEN A family of water insoluble proteins in wheat; includes gliadin proteins that are toxic to persons with celiac disease.
WHITE BEAN Three types of white bean are widely used: the cannellini or kidney bean; Great Northern Beans, which are large, soft and mild tasting; and the smaller, firmer navy beans.
WHITE SUGAR Pure sucrose or "table sugar", produced by dissolving, concentrating and recrystallizing raw sugar.
WHO World Health Organization, an entity within the United Nations, headquartered in Switzerland.
WHOLE GRAIN A grain milled in its entirety (all but the husk), not refined.
WILD RICE Seeds of a native American grass.
WINE An alcoholic beverage made by fermenting grape juice.
WINGED BEAN Edible legume called the "soybean of the tropics". All parts of the plant are consumed, including the shoots, leaves, flowers, pods and seeds, and tuberous root. The pods are large, from 12 to 24 inches long, and feature winglike flanges.
WINTER MELON Round green skin member of the squash family with a waxy white coating and a transluescent white green or pink flesh. Taste similar to zucchini and used in Chinese dishes.
WORCESTERSHIRE SAUCE Sauce developed by the Lea and Perrins company of Great Britain that includes anchovies, garlic, onions, molasses, sugar or corn sweetner, tamarind and vinegar among other ingredients.
WSR Women at Sexual Risk
XANTHOPHYLLS (Zan-tho-fills) Pigments found in plants; responsible for the color changes seen in autumn leaves.
XEROPHTHALMIA (zer-off-THAL-mee-uh) A progressive blindness resulting from severe Viatamin A deficiency.
XEROSIS (zee-ROW-sis) Abnormal drying of the skin and mucous membranes; a sign of Vitamin A deficiency.
XEROSTOMIA Dry mouth caused by reduced salivary flow.
YACON Sweet tasting root with brown skin and white flesh native to the Andes. Eaten throughout South America. Mistakenly called jicama. Also known as yakon or leafcup.
YAM Tuber with rough brown skin and a starchy white flesh (not related to the orange colored sweet potato called a Yam in the U.S.). Many varieties; may grow quite large, up to 100 pounds. Found in all tropical regions. Yam paste made in West Africa is known as fufu.
YERBA BUENA A variety of mint used in some Native American teas.
YOGURT Milk fermented by specific bacterial cultures.
YUCCA Spiky leaved dessert plant with large pulpy fruit that ripens in summer. Eaten fresh, boiled, baked, or dried into fruit leather.
ZAPOTE Drab colored fruit of the sapodilla tree. It has a has granular, mildly sweet flesh, which can be yellow, red or black. The zapote is a member of the persimmon family. Also known as sapodilla, black sapote, and naseberry. The sapodilla tree is also the source of chicle used in chewing gum.
ZIDOVUDINE See AZT.
ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME A syndrome characterized by the development of gastrin- secreting tumors (gastinomas); most often located in the pancreas and duodenum.
ZYGOTE The product of the union of ovum and sperm; so-called for the first two weeks after fertilization.
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