416                                                                             A. R. WOHL ET AL.

TABLE 2. Sexual behaviors in women with HIV and AIDS interviewed in
Los Angeles County, 1990-1997


Race/ethnicity of women

Black

White

Latina

Other

No. % No. % No. % No. %

Behavior

(n =168) (n = 87) (n = 357) (n =12)
Number of male sexual partners in last 5 years
   >1 103 61 44 51 125 35 5 42
   1 46 27 33 38 188 53 6 50
   0 46 27 33 38 188 53 6 50
   Missing information 2 1 0 - 2 1 0 1
   ORa comparing >I partners with 0 I partners = 2.3b; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.4
In year before learning of HIV infection, how often used condoms with your steady sex partner?c
   Never 69 69 26 62 128 67 3 38
   Sometimes 14 14 4 10 21 11 1 13
   Usually 3 3 3 7 5 3 0 -
   Every time 6 6 3 7 15 8 1 13
   Did not have sex with anyone 6 6 5 12 20 10 1 13
   Did not have steady sex partner 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 25
   ORa comparing never with sometimes, usually, or every time = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.6, 1.8
Since you learned of your HIV infection, how often did you use condoms with your steady sex partner?c
   Never 11 11 4 10 16 8 0 -
   Sometimes 13 13 2 5 14 7 0 -
   Usually 11 11 4 10 14 7 2 25
   Every time 37 37 16 38 78 41 3 38
   Did not have sex with anyone 23 23 13 31 59 31 3 38
   Did not have steady sex partner 5 5 3 7 8 4 0 -
   Unknown 0 - 0 - 2 1 0 -
   ORa comparing never to sometimes, usually or every time=1.2; 95% CI's: 0.5, 2.7
In past 5 years, has anyone given you money or drugs to have sex with them?
   Yes 32 19 10 11 20 4 1 8
   No 134 80 77 89 336 95 11 92
   Refused to Answer 2 1 0 - 1 0 0 -
   ORa = 2.0d; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.5

OR, odds ratio; Cl, confidence interval; SHAS, Supplement to the HIV and AIDS Surveillance Project.
aOR and 95% CIs were calculated comparing African-American women with women of all other races.
bAdjusted OR controlling for STD history.
c This question was introduced in SHAS in 1995 and therefore only asked of approximately 50% of the subjects.
d Adjusted OR controlling for number of sexual partners in last 5 years.

   With respect to non-injection drug use behavior, 55% of African-American women reported some noninjection drug use in the past 5 years, a proportion that was significantly larger than that for women of other races, when controlling for number of sexual partners (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 2.2, 4.9). The analyses of crack use, controlled for number of sexual partners, show that African-American women were 4.7 (95% CI = 3.2, 7.1) times more likely to report ever using crack when compared with women of other races (Table 5).

DISCUSSION

   The profile that emerges for African -American women with HIV and AIDS in LAC is that of a group of women who are impoverished, unemployed, single parents, living on public assistance. Moreover, the extremely low annual household incomes of this sample of African- American women with HIV and AIDS in LA Cunderscores the fact that African-American

women with HIV and AIDS are from the lowest socioeconomic strata of this large urban center (12). However, the temporal association between socioeconomic status and HIV risk for African-American women is not clear. That is, HIV infection or disease may have contributed to the loss of employment and subsequent income, resulting in the need for public assistance. Some authors have qualitatively described this profile of African-American women as one that emerges from a culture of poverty that includes overcrowded housing and economic dependence of the African-American woman on her injection drugusing partner, both factors that place a woman at greater risk for HIV (2,13).
   The delay seen among African-American women in seeking treatment for their HIV infection is consistent with findings of the lower use of outpatient services and medical care in general by persons of color with HIV when compared with that of white persons (14,15). It is

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, Vol 19, No. 4, December 1, 1998

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